Vaccine Delivery Systems

An important consideration in the development of vaccines is the mode of delivery. Development of vaccines against RF is focussed on the parenteral and the mucosal delivery of the vaccines. Administration of adjuvant potentially enhances the efficacy of a vaccine and alum is one of the choices, although the magnitude of the antibody response happens to be suboptimal. Human-compatible adjuvants that induce strong antibody responses are being investigated. It is generally believed that a mucosal...

Hepatitis C Viruses Introduction

Infection by HCV (family Flaviviridae, genus Hepacivirus), the cause of most cases of non-A, non-B viral hepatitis, is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, resulting in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide146 and infects 175 million people globally. More than 80 of infected patients develop chronic disease while remaining essentially asymptomatic.147 In the United States, an estimated 2 to 3 million people are currently infected and more than 150,000 new cases of HCV infection...

Heart Disease In Children Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is increasingly recognized as an important cause of heart disease, particularly myocarditis and DCM. However, the pathogenesis of the heart-muscle disease in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is unclear. CMV sequences have been detected in myocardial samples. For example, Wu et al.43 reported a study of the role of CMV infection in the development of HIV-associated cardiomyopathy. Using probes derived from the CMV immediate-early and...

Adaptive Immunity

Adaptive immunity or antigen-specific immunity involves clones of either T or B lymphocytes that are committed to respond to a single antigen. Antigens are molecules that can both stimulate an immune response and interact with the products of that immune response. Antigens must exceed a minimum size (usually greater than 1,000 daltons). Molecular composition, shape, and ability to be catabolized all influence antigenicity. Usually, proteins and carbohydrates make the best antigens, but just...

Treatment Of Giant Cell Myocarditis

Giant cell myocarditis is rapidly progressive and frequently requires the concurrent management of congestive heart failure, tachyarrhythmias, heart block, and secondary renal and hepatic insufficiency. Supportive care may include standard pharmacologic therapy for congestive heart failure, a permanent or temporary pacemaker, an implantable cardiac defibrillator, and an intra-aortic balloon pump. The use of these drugs and devices should be dictated by standard clinical practice....

Murine Models of Acute Coxsackieviral Myocarditis

CVB infection of many strains of mice can cause an acute myocarditis.17 Acute viral infection causes potent activation of the cellular immune response that has been studied extensively and is reviewed elsewhere in this book. The discussion below focuses on the direct viral-mediated myocytopathic effects that occur with viral infection or expression of coxsackieviral genomes in the heart. Viral-mediated cytotoxicity has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo in acute viral infection. There is a...

References

Arch Schiffs Tropen-Hygiene 1909 13 120-122. 2. Chagas C. Ueber eine neue Trypanosomiasis des Menschen. Arch Schiffs Tropen-Hygiene 1909 13 351-353. 3. Lewinsohn R. Carlos Chagas (1879-1934) the discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi and of American trypanosomiasis (foot-notes to the history of Chagas's disease). Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1979 73 513-523. 4. Chagas C. Nova Tripanozomiaze humana. Estudios sobre a morfolojia e o ciclo evolutivo do Schizotrypanum cruzi n....

Humoral Immune Responses During Cvb Infections

Most CVB strains must replicate to some extent in humans' as evidenced by detection of antiviral antibodies in sera of hosts with illnesses or serious diseases such as inflammatory heart disease.43'44'55'69 Depending on the serotype and socioeconomic level of a person' by age 30 years 18 to 94 of humans have antibodies to at least 1 sometimes 2 or 3' of the CVB serotypes.70-73 A protective role for antibodies against CVB3-induced myocarditis or death was established early with murine models....

Artificial Attenuation Versus Naturally Occurring Virulence Phenotypes

The CVB are, however, not under a cloud of eradication like the related polioviruses and are an excellent model system with which to study the genetics that underlie naturally occurring virulence phenotypes and approaches to artificial attenuation. A distinct advantage to the study of CVB virulence phenotypes is the ability of these viruses to replicate well and to high titers in mice and the ability to induce diseases, such as acute myocarditis and pancreatitis, that are close counterparts to...

Right Internal Jugular Vein Approach

The patient should be supine with the neck extended and the head turned fully to the left. Elevation of the feet on a foam wedge is useful if cardiac filling pressures are low. Careful identification of the triangle formed by the clavicle and the medial and lateral heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle is essential. This may be facilitated by palpating and visualizing the neck while the patient slightly lifts the head from the table, resulting in activation of the appropriate muscles. After...

The Coxsackievirusadenovirus Receptor

Evidence that several of the coxsackieviruses and Ad use a common cell surface receptor was provided initially by experiments that tested the abilities of different viruses (CVB1, CVB3, and Ad2) to interfere with one another for binding to and infecting target cells.36'37 These early results have now been confirmed in detail. The shared receptor is commonly referred to as CAR (HCAR and MCAR are used to denote CAR of human or mouse origin, respectively). The CAR has been shown to function as the...