Natural Dietary Supplements

Inner Peace Formula

The formula product of nutrition blends-inner-peace is well known, it is a remedy for plants used for a wide range of problems. In oncology, it is especially recommended as a topical treatment to prevent or treat skin irritations after radiotherapy. The product is a succulent plant with many amazing uses, it is then applied topically to the skin and hair or ingested. The product can also be combined with other natural ingredients to be part of your health or beauty routine. The product is scientifically proven the ingredients used in the Inner Peace formula have been specifically chosen because of scientific studies proving that they have the power to significantly improve the health and well-being of the individual. For decades, the soothing nature of nutrition blends-inner-peace formula has been known and respected by the people who believe in naturopathy. The product has compounds such as ashwagandha, magnolia, hops,l-Theanine, Passion Flower, Panax Ginseng, Hawthorn Berry that are extremely beneficial for human health. It has 18 amino acids that work in association with other compounds of the human body to deliver numerous health benefits. It has been reported extensively that Panax Ginseng supports the immune system by enhancing the body's resistance to illness and microbial attacks. More here...

Inner Peace Formula Summary


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Contents: Dietary Supplement
Author: Kimberly Langdon
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My Inner Peace Formula Review

Highly Recommended

All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable pdf so that purchasers of Inner Peace Formula can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

When compared to other ebooks and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

Preface to the series

The business of dietary supplements in the Western World has expanded from the Health Store to the pharmacy. Alternative medicine includes plant-based products. Appropriate measures to ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of these either already exist or are being answered by greater legislative control by such bodies as the Food and Drug Administration of the USA and the recently created European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, based in London. In the USA, the Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act of 1994 recognized the class of phytotherapeutic agents derived from medicinal and aromatic plants. Furthermore, under public pressure, the US Congress set up an Office of Alternative Medicine and this office in 1994 assisted the filing of several Investigational New Drug (IND) applications, required for clinical trials of some Chinese herbal preparations. The significance of these applications was that each Chinese preparation involved several plants and yet was...

Criteria for Conditional Essentiality

Rudman and Feller (18) proposed three criteria for establishing conditional essentiality of nutrients (a) decline in the plasma level of the nutrient into the subnormal range (b) appearance of chemical, structural, or functional abnormalities and (c) correction of both of these by a dietary supplement of the nutrient. All these criteria must be met to establish unequivocally that a nutrient is conditionally essential.

Epidemiologic Evidence

Additional observations among large North American cohorts of the effects of consuming more than 100 IU of vitamin E daily on decreasing coronary event rates3435 and effects of lower doses on the rates of progression of coronary artery lesions36 led to several studies with experimental designs. However, the results of intervention studies using supplements were deceptive. The apparent benefit from high intakes of antioxidant vitamins reported in observational studies was not confirmed in large randomized trials. All of eight randomized trials37-44 of antioxidant vitamins as dietary supplements for primary prevention in healthy subjects failed to show beneficial effects of antioxidant supplementation on cardiovascular events.


Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite that has shown anticatabolic actions through inhibiting ubiquitin-proteosome-mediated protein breakdown216 and that may prevent exercise-induced muscle damage.217 It is primarily used by bodybuilders as a supportive measure to induce changes in body composition, and could be a potential dietary supplement for body weight reduction.182 Randomized clinical trials conducted to assess the potential for HMB as an ergogenic aid reported modest effects in reducing fat mass and increasing lean body mass, and no apparent adverse effects (reviewed in references 199 and 218).

Health or education interventions Targeting disease or symptoms

It might be expected that tackling the root cause of a disease is more important than dealing with its consequences for development, as sure as prevention is better than cure. However, the one study to test this hypothesis in the long term found the reverse. The study of malnourished children in Jamaica found a long-term effect of psychosocial stimulation but no long-term effect of nutritional supplementation. Both interventions had an immediate effect on the developmental levels of its preschool participants but the effects of the nutritional supplement waned with time in an interesting way. Eight years after the intervention nutritional supplements had an effect on cognitive ability only for children whose mothers had high verbal intelligence (a proxy for the amount of stimulation they would have received). In the later follow-ups no impact of the nutritional supplements was apparent. It seems that stimulation is a key part of intervention. We saw in the review of literature that...

Antioxidants and Disease Outcome Observational Studies

Several epidemiologic observations indicate an inverse association between vitamin E intake and CHD. For example, the Iowa Women's Health Study (n 34,486) 14 , Nurses' Health Study (n 87,245) 15 , and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (men only n 39,910) 16 revealed that subjects in the highest quintile of vitamin E consumption from food and supplements had relative CHD risks of 0.78, 0.59, and 0.59, respectively, after adjustment for confounding variables such as age. The Nurses' Health study 15 showed a decreased risk of coronary artery disease in women who took vitamin E supplements for more than 2 years. However, in this study women who took the supplements had a slightly better cardiovascular risk profile at baseline. It is also probable that people who choose the vitamin supplements had healthier lifestyle.

Iron European Pharmacopoeia 231

The test identifies that the substance to be examined contains iron. Reference to iron is made in five monographs, and they include metallic iron itself and simple organic and inorganic salts of Fe2+ and Fe3+. These substances are widely used in vitamin supplements. Four monographs dictate test (a) and one dictates test (c). Being a typical transition metal, iron can exist in more that one oxidation level, but out of these only iron(II) and iron(III) are stable, and they are both very common. Both ions form insoluble hydroxides (white and reddish-brown, respectively), but iron(II) is very easily oxidized into iron(III) at neutral and alkaline conditions. Even dissolved oxygen affords this reaction, so solutions of iron(II) have to be acidic to be stable. A solution containing iron(II) gives a green appearance, whereas solutions of iron(III) are pale yellow.

Antioxidants and Disease Outcome Interventional Trials

Some of the larger interventional studies that have been published are summarized in table 2. The outcomes of these studies are not always consistent. The Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS) 34 and Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study 35 found a beneficial effect of vitamin E intake. The randomization of subjects in the CHAOS trial was fraught with problems, the number of events was small and the follow-up interval was short. The study population in the ASAP trial may have been deficient in vitamin E at baseline, and therefore the results of this study cannot be generalized to people with adequate vitamin E stores. In this study, the progression of carotid atherosclerosis was reduced only in the group of men who were smokers and consumed both vitamin E (136IU) and vitamin C (250 mg) daily 35 . It is likely that the smokers are under greater oxidative stress hence they benefited the most from the antioxidants. The validity of the randomization...

Andrew J Vickers and Barrie Cassileth

CAM is widely used by the general public in the United States2,3 and in other industrialized countries.4-7 CAM use is markedly prevalent among cancer patients a systematic review located 26 surveys of cancer patients from 13 countries, including 5 from the United States. The average prevalence across all studies was 31 , with prevalence rates as high as 64 in published reports.8 Research published subsequent to the systematic review showed similar or slightly increased rates of CAM use.9-15 Particularly popular today among cancer patients is the use of herbs, vitamins, and other dietary supplements. For example, more than one in four prostate cancer patients at a Canadian cancer clinic16 and at a veterans' affairs medical center17 used supplements or herbal treatments. A review of several studies reporting CAM product use in breast cancer patients found rates as high as 50 for herbs and 60 for other supplements.18

Interactions Between CAM and Conventional Oncologic Therapy

The relevant principle of CAM for cancer is that patients should avoid botanical products and other dietary supplements during and for a 2-week washout period before chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery. Botanicals with hormonal effects should not be used concurrently with hormonal therapy. Metabolic interactions Many botanicals are known to modify the activity of cytochrome CYP450 3A4, affecting the blood levels of drugs metabolized on this pathway.77 St. John's wort, for example, induces CYP450 3A4 in vitro,77 and in a randomized cross-over study, the plasma concentration of SN-38, irinotecan's active metabolite, was dramatically reduced when patients concurrently used St. John's wort.78 Several other popular botanicals, such as Echinacea and goldenseal, also were shown to modify CYP450 3A4 activity by an in vitro screen.77 Antioxidants Many cytotoxic therapies, notably radiotherapy, depend on producing oxidative damage within the cancer cell. The activity of radiotherapy depends...

Cyclooxygenase Activity And Expression

The structural similarity between resveratrol and the synthetic estrogen diethyl-stilbestrol provided the first clue that resveratrol may function as a phytoestrogen. Estrogen-receptor (ER) agonists bind to the receptor and induce ER binding to estrogen response elements (EREs) in the promoters of target genes with the effect of promoter activation. Phytoestrogens are dietary nonsteroidal agents with ER agonist or mixed ER agonist antagonist activity. In the first definitive analysis of resveratrol effects on the transcriptional activity of the ER, Jameson's group37 established that resveratrol competitively bound ER expressed by MCF7 cells, and activated an ERE-containing promoter-reporter gene construct in MCF7 cells but not a derived construct with the ERE deleted. Furthermore, resveratrol-induced activation of the ERE-containing promoter was abrogated by the pure antiestrogen ICI 182780, indicating that transcriptional activation entailed res-veratrol binding to the ER and thus...

Hydroxycitric acid 1031 Background

Wild but is also cultivated in some areas. The fruits of G. cambogia are about the size of an orange but resemble a small yellowish or reddish pumpkin. The dried rinds of the fruit are used in food preparation in several Southeast Asian countries where, amongst other attributes, they are said to be effective in making meals 'more filling' (FDA, 2005a). Good use of this feature of G. cambogia has been made by the dietary supplement industry, particularly in the USA where supplements containing Garcinia extract have been promoted for appetite suppression for many years.

Safety and regulatory status

As noted above, G. cambogia extract HCA has been a component of dietary supplements in the USA for some years. In 2003 InterHealth announced that a panel of scientific experts had affirmed Super CitriMax as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) for use in functional beverages in the USA (Interhealth website, GRAS affirmation). This is the first step towards more general food application of HCA. It seems likely that if HCA becomes a mainstream ingredient raw material supply might become an issue. This has obviously been predicted by the Ireland-based Company, Shannon Minerals Ltd, who recently submitted a premarket notification of intention to market synthetic HCA as a new dietary ingredient for dietary supplement applications. The FDA rejected this application, unconvinced of equivalence to the currently marketed HCA extracted from G. cambogia.

Methods Of Nutritional Support

Enteral nutrition is particularly suited to patients with diabetes due to a more physiological delivery of nutrients. Although enteral feeding may have some complications, they are generally less severe than those associated with parenteral nutrition. The anticipated length of feeding and the perceived nutritional requirements will influence the route of nutritional support to be chosen. The first line of nutritional support is oral diet, with or without nutritional supplements, and only if the patient is at risk of aspiration or cannot meet their nutritional requirements orally should other routes be considered. The decision of how best to feed enterally or when to instigate parenteral nutrition requires a consensus from the clinical team and, if

Child Saver or Fools Gold

Simpler and better ways of fighting vitamin A deficiency that were already in use, such as distributing vitamin supplements and encouraging poor people to raise and eat fruits and vegetables that contain vitamin A or substances that the body can convert into the vitamin. Most important, Shiva and other critics said, golden rice or any other proposed high-technology solution to world hunger ignored hunger's real causes, which the commentators held to be poverty, war, lack of land, and lack of access to a nutritious and diverse diet. Increasing the quantity or quality of food would not solve these problems, they warned. The critics even claimed that golden rice's only real purpose was to provide positive publicity for biotechnology companies and persuade people to accept genetically modified foods.

Omega3 and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in functional food products

Functional foods are food products that have beneficial effects on physiology and or have the ability to reduce the risk of a disease. Functional foods may be conventional food or foods that have been enriched with functional components to provide greater health benefits, but they do not include purified substances provided in pills or capsules. Since omega-3 PUFAs have been shown to have beneficial effects in several health conditions they are considered to be a functional food. The positive effects of omega-3 PUFAs in different diseases have been established and these fatty acids have been particularly interesting in coronary heart disease but also in several other conditions such as arteriosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, cancer, depression and asthma (de Lorgeril et al., 1994 Simopoulos, 1999 Ruxton et al., 2004 Nettleton and Katz, 2005). The beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFAs on health have resulted in the production of dietary supplements becoming a large industry. There is also a...

Energy Requirements for Dialysis Patients

If CAPD patients have difficulty in meeting their recommended dietary energy intakes due to early satiety, they should be encouraged to eat after 'drain-out' and to wait 20-30 min before commencing the next dialysate bag. Avoiding fluids at mealtimes can also improve appetite by minimising stomach distension. If energy requirements are not achieved despite dietetic input, nutritional supplements should be considered (21).

Further Market Withdrawals

Were also voluntarily withdrawn in the United States by the Eckerd Corporation, one of the largest retail drug chains in the United States, and by Longs Drugs. Furthermore, a leading online wholesaler of nutritional supplements,, now refuses to sell products containing phenylpropanol-amine and has urged other online retailers to do the same.

Additional Nutritional Support

Haemodialysis patients who continue to report weight loss and poor nutritional intake and who are unable to take nutritional supplements should be considered for either enteral support or intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) (34). Nasogastric feeding is the preferred short-term option for hospitalised inpatients but this is not usually practical in the outpatient setting. The relatively recent introduction of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) feeding in HD patients has been shown to be successful in many cases. Balancing the patient's fluid allowance with their nutritional requirements is a

Cardiovascular Disease

Hyperhomocysteinaemia (tHcy) is another independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (27). Both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients with renal failure have approximately fourfold higher tHcy levels than controls prior to transplantation. These levels can fall by a third after a successful renal transplant and further falls have been reported with folic acid, B6 and B12 supplements (28). The routine place of these dietary supplements in diabetic renal transplant patients awaits further studies.

Malnutrition syndromes of childhood

Inflammatory markers such as soluble IL-2 receptor and eosinophilic cationic protein are often increased. Infections are worsened by diminished immune responsiveness, possibly related to abnormal zinc turnover, reduced thymulin activity, and reduced IL-2 and NK activity. Both copper and zinc are reduced in CF 105, 106 . Nutritional therapy includes dietary supplements, increased fat and protein absorption with oral pancreatic enzymes, supplemental fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin K), and omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid. Evaluation of growth requires a specialized approach 107 .

Fattal Valevsk 2001 On Micronutrient

83 Ahmed J, Zaman MM, Ali SM (2004) Immunological response to antioxidant vitamin supplementation in rural Bangladeshi school children with group A streptococcal infection. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 13 226-230 90 Malmberg KJ, Lenkei R, Petersson M, Ohlum T, Ichihara F, Glimelius B, Frodin JE, Masucci G, Kiessling R (2002) A short-term dietary supplementation of high doses of vitamin E increases T helper 1 cytokine production in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res 8 1772-1778 137 Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Hunter D, Renjifo B, Antelman G, Bang H, Manji K, Kapiga S, Mwakagile D, Essex M et al (2002) Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding and early child mortality. AIDS 16 1935-1944

Neuroactive Responses In Vivo To Ginkgo Biloba Egb 761

Cortex and hippocampus were chosen as target neuroa-natomical sites for gene expression analysis of 12,000 mouse genes (Affymetrix, Murine Genome Mu74Av2). Mice were fed a diet supplemented with Ginkgo biloba extract as previously described (3) which was supplemented with 1mg of EGb 761 per day. Plasma was obtained from blood samples and analyzed for flavonoids as previously described (27). Dietary supplementation for 30 days increased the presence of flavonoids, quercetin, and kempherol, in plasma of mice supplemented with EGb 761 (3). These data support previous observations that orally administered extract is bioavailable in rodents (28,29) and in humans (30,31). The extract was well tolerated as indicated by absence of any effects on the dietary intake or the whole body weight of mice. extract was centrally active (3). The expression of 43 genes and 13 genes was up regulated by at least twofold in cortex and hippocampus, respectively. A small number of genes such as those encoding...

Low Carbohydrate Versus Low Fat Diets

A recent study of 120 overweight, hyperlipidemic volunteers compared a low-carbohydrate diet to a low-fat, low-calorie diet. The low-carbohydrate group initially consumed only 20 g per day of carbohydrates and took vitamin supplements. The low-fat, low-calorie group consumed less than 30 of total calories from fat and less than 300 mg of cholesterol per day and ate 500 to 1000 fewer calories per day. Both groups were encouraged to exercise three times per week, keep a food diary, and attend weekly educational meetings. After 24 weeks, the low-carbohydrate group had lost more weight with better improvement of lipids than the low-fat, low-calorie group. Weight loss averaged 12.9 in the low-carbohydrate group compared to 6.7 in the low-fat group. On average, triglycerides were reduced by 72 mg dl and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) rose by 5.5 mg dl in the low-carbohydrate subjects compared to a reduction of 27.9 mg dl in triglycerides and a drop of 1.6 mg dl in HDL for the low-fat...

OF NFjBdriven Gene Induction By Phytoestrogens

In many cases, the chemopreventive effects of dietary chemopreventives in cultured cells or tissues are only achievable at supraphysiological concentrations (such concentrations might not be attained when the phytochemicals are administered as part of diet) since metabolization and or chaperone protection of these compounds may be less efficient in tissue culture setups (12,27,56,239). As phenolic phyto-chemicals are often present as glycosides or are converted to other conjugated forms after absorption, it would be of high interest to compare relative activities of each metabolite in modulation of NF-kB activity. Both pharmacokinetic properties and bioavailability are key problems in investigating the dietary prevention of cancer and should be assessed carefully before undertaking intervention trials with dietary supplements. The development and use of chemopreventive agents for intervention trials involve many scientific disci plines. With the advances in techniques to assess single...

Bioactive Dietary Components

Cancer-preventive properties of the macronutrient (carbohydrate, protein, fat, and fiber) and micronutrient (vitamin and mineral) components of diets have been the object of study for a number of years, and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has sponsored a number of human intervention trials with individual vitamins and minerals.10 More recently, however, research efforts have extended to the non-nutritive phytochemicals. The NCI has determined that more than 35 plant-based foods and 1000 individual phytochemicals possess cancer-preventive activity in cell culture and animal models.7 Well-studied food sources and representative phytochemicals include garlic (diallyl sulfide), soybeans (genistein), turmeric (curcumin), tomatoes (lycopene), grapes (resveratrol), green tea (epigallocatechin-3-gallate EGCG ), and cruciferous vegetables (such as broccoli, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts indole-3-carbinol, sulforaphane).7 However, the repertoire of chemopreventive phytochemicals is vast,...

Beef pork lamb and vealTotal fat grams

When it comes to nutritional supplements, there is always something new on the market being reported as the latest nutritional discovery. It is very difficult for the layperson to understand the myriad of nutrition advice available. In most cases, the nutrition claims sound scientific and reasonable, however at closer look, the research just isn't there to support these claims. studies which showed chromium improved muscle mass during strength training. Many well-controlled studies have been done in this area and have shown less promising results. In addition, there is no data to support the claim that chromium picolinate improves weight loss. More research is needed. While prescription medications undergo rigorous testing before approval, nutritional supplements do not. If the nutritional claim sounds too good to be true, it probably is Chromium is found in brewer's yeast, oysters, liver, and potatoes, while seafood, whole grains, cheeses, chicken, meats, bran, fresh fruits and...

Conclusion And Therapeutic Outlook

Moreover, diet is becoming increasingly important as there is evidence that patients may influence disease development and progression by adapting specific dietary concepts. However, data concerning diet and nutritional supplements is controversial. The role of nutritionally administered iron has been supported by an epidemiological study revealing that iron taken in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile leads to an increased risk of PD (61).

EFruits and Vegetables

Fruits and vegetables are readily available in developed countries and are a natural source of nutrients, fiber, and potent antioxidants. During an intervention assay the amount of DNA damage in the peripheral lymphocytes of test subjects was substantially reduced. Thus, the number of mutations can be reduced, as well as the possibility of developing tumors.29 Fruits and vegetables may be up to 20 d.w. of the diet of vegetarians, which includes high levels of phenolics. Some phenolics have been considered as trapping agents of nitrates, preventing the formation of the mutagenic N-nitroso compounds, which in turn have been linked to cancers of the nasopharynx, esophagus, and stomach. Additionally, phenolics are part of the detoxification systems.30 Currently, blueberries are emerging as one of the brightest prospects among fruits. Products from blueberries and other Vaccinium sp. can be marketed as dietary supplements in the United States with a structure-function claim such as promote...

Nutritional Ergogenic Agents

Taking performance-enhancing supplements is a personal choice. Table 14-1 lists some popular ergogenic agents grouped by type (identified in bold), the research findings, and the potential side effects. However, this list is not complete as new supplements enter the market regularly. This table is designed to educate you as a consumer. Many of the ergogenic agents listed are classified as nutritional supplements. When marketed as a nutritional supplement, these substances are not regulated by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA). Often this means that the performance claims and the risks associated with using these substances have not been thoroughly tested.

Plant ingredients interfering with the sympathoadrenal system

Caffeine (and other methylxanthines, abundant in coffee and teas) inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterases, thus prolonging the half-life of cAMP, which is a critical intracellular mediator for the lipolytic and thermogenic effects of catecholamines. Ephedrine, the principle alkaloid found in shrubs of plants of the genus Ephedra, and other Ephedra alkaloids, promote the release of noradrenaline from SNS terminals and possess adrenoceptor agonist activity, thus favoring thermogenesis, vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure in addition, Ephedra alkaloids have amphetamine-like effects in the central nervous system, promoting appetite suppression, mood elevation and resistance to fatigue (reviewed in reference 162). Combinations of ephedrine and caffeine are marketed both as pure compounds in capsular form and as herbal preparations sold under the category of dietary supplements. Ephedrine and Ephedra alkaloids, alone and especially when combined with caffeine or caffeine-containing...

Effects of Vitamin B6 on Immune Function

Vitamin B6, although having no anti-oxidant properties, plays an important part in anti-oxidant defenses because of its action in the metabolic pathway for the formation of cysteine, which, as indicated earlier, is the rate limiting precursor in glutathione synthesis. Vitamin B6 status has widespread effects on immune function (79). Vitamin B6 deficiency causes thymic atrophy and lymphocyte depletion in lymph nodes and spleen. Antigen processing is unaffected. However, the ability to make antibodies to sheep red blood cells is depressed. In human studies, the ability to make antibodies to tetanus and typhoid antigens is not seriously affected. Various aspects of cell-mediated immunity are also influenced by vitamin B6 deficiency. Skin grafts in rats and mice survive longer during deficiency, and guinea-pigs exhibit decreased delayed hypersensitivity reactions to bacille Calmete-Guerin (BCG) administration. Deficiency of vitamin B6 is rare in humans but can be precipitated with the...

Inroduction For Adipose Tissue Article

The quest for a magic bullet for weight loss is far from new. Throughout the last century a bewildering array of strategies emerged only to be discredited due to lack of safety or efficacy. Of the more extreme ideas, the purposeful ingestion of tapeworms must surely rank as the most bizarre. Whilst this may just be an urban legend, today's Internet abounds with articles on the subject, implicating the rich and famous and apparently still offering tapeworm eggs for sale as dietary supplements. The very thought of this is repugnant, but it does demonstrate the lengths to which some might go to achieve weight loss. By the 1960s amphetamines had become the product of choice for appetite suppression. Ephedra is an evergreen shrub found in central Asia. It contains the alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. It achieved remarkable popularity and, latterly, notoriety in the weight loss arena. Finally the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned the sale of ephedra in dietary supplements...


The methyltransferases (MTs) catalyze the methyl conjugation of a number of small molecules, such as drugs, hormones, and neurotransmitters, but they are also responsible for the methylation of such macromol-ecules as proteins, RNA, and DNA. A representative reaction of this type is shown in Figure 4.1. Most of the MTs use S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as the methyl donor, and this compound is now being used as a dietary supplement for the treatment of various conditions. Methylations typically occur at oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms on a molecule. For example, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is responsible for the biotransformation of catecholamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine. -methylation is a well established pathway for the metabolism of neu-rotransmitters, such as conversion of norepinephrine to epinephrine and methylation of nicotinamide and hista-mine. Possibly the most clinically relevant example of MT activity involves S-methylation by the...

The large intestine

Because of these beneficial properties of colonic fermentation, products have been developed that will encourage this process. These are known as prebiotics and probiotics. Prebiotics are carbohydrates that will largely escape small-intestinal digestion, for instance polysaccharides composed of fructose units (called inulin or fructo-oligosaccharides). By reaching the large intestine they stimulate bacterial activity. Probiotics are the bacteria themselves, usually in the form of 'live yoghurts'. A proportion of these will escape death in the acidity of the stomach and will colonise the colon. These dietary supplements, or 'functional foods', may have beneficial effects on health for the reasons given above.

Omega3 fatty acids

Inflammatory mediators including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and platelet activating factor are products of omega-6 fatty acids such as linoleic acid and its product, arachidonic acid. Most standard enteral formulas contain omega-6 fatty acids as the principle fat source. Fish oils with omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory effects in animal models, probably because production of arachidonic acid metabolites is reduced. In human volunteers dietary supplements of omega-3 fatty acids reduce monocyte production of interleukin 1a, interleukin 1b, and tumor necrosis factor. Experimental studies show varying effects of omega-3 fatty acids on outcome in animal models of sepsis. A preliminary study shows a trend to reduced infection in patients given fish oil as their fat source after abdominal surgery.


Plants and some lower organisms synthesize carotenoids that serve as vitamin A precursors, but they do not synthesize retinoids directly. Humans and other animals convert carotenoids to retinol and its metabolites, but may obtain preformed vitamin A in foods of animal origin or through nutritional supplements. Common dietary vitamin A sources are liver, dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter, and fish oil. Common dietary sources of preformed provitamin A carotenoids include carrots, dark green leafy vegetables, corn, tomatoes, papayas, mangoes, oranges, and artificially colored foods.


Vitamin C reportedly exerts substantial cancer chemopreventive effects mainly due to its strong antioxidant activities against DNA damage. This antioxidant has also been used as a dietary supplement to prevent oxidative stress-mediated chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging. Several studies have shown that vitamin C has pro-oxidant activity under certain conditions such as in the presence of transition metal ions or alkali.76 A recent study suggests that even a moderate daily dose of supplementary vitamin C (200 mg) induces the formation of geno-toxins from lipid hydroperoxides, which results in DNA damage and the initiation of carcinogenesis.76 Despite questionable experimental designs and the numerous contradicting reports, the current consensus from epidemiological and human studies is that a low risk of cancer is more strongly related to antioxidant-rich diets than to individual dietary supplement...

Gmp Gmp

Products makes the synthetic pigments much less desirable and provides an opportunity for the production of natural astaxanthin by the Haematococcus alga. Hae-matococcus produces 1.5 to 3.0 astaxanthin and has gained acceptance in aquaculture and other markets as a concentrated form of natural astaxanthin. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency and the U.S. FDA have approved the use of this alga as a color additive in salmonid feeds. Astaxanthin is used in aquaculture by functions such as (1) antioxidant, (2) hormone precursor, (3) immune enhancement, (4) provitamin A activity, (5) reproduction, (6) growth, (7) maturation, and (8) photoprotection.113114 In general, astaxanthin is used as a nutraceutical ingredient. The alga meal has been approved as a natural red food color in Japan and some European countries as well as a dietary supplement ingredient in the United States.113

Native starches

Starches (maize, wheat, rice) are of the A-type, tuber starches (potato, yam) are B-type, and legume starches (kidney bean, soybean) normally belong to C-type. Some A-type starches (maize, sorghum, millets, and large granules of wheat, rye, and barley at the equatorial groove) have surface pores connected to interior cavities through channels (Fannon et al., 1992). There are no such surface pores in B-type starch granules. This macrostructural difference between native starch granules has importance during digestion as starch-digesting enzymes enter the pores and channels and digest the granules in an inside-out manner. As far as the nutritional quality of starch is concerned, native A-type starches inherently have a high amount of SDS while native B-type starches are essentially resistant (high RS) (Ferguson et al., 2000), based on the in vitro Englyst assay (Englyst et al., 1992). In an in vivo study, Seal et al. (2003) clearly showed the changes in blood glucose levels after...

Other constituents

Acarbose, an oligosaccharide formed by strains of the genus Actinoplanes, functions as an inhibitor of both a-amylase and the mucosal a-glucosidases (sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase) (Hiele et al., 1992). It has been effective in the treatment of diabetes as it slows down digestion of disaccharides and starch (Chiasson et al., 1994 Conniff et al., 1994) and is used in some countries to treat diabetes. However, it has frequently been shown to have gastrointestinal side effects due to malabsorption of disaccharides. Starch blockers, purified amylase inhibitors from Great Northern beans (phaseolamin), have also shown promise in glucose homeostatis (Boivin et al., 1988) and are marketed as dietary supplements (Phase 2 Starch Neutralizer Udani et al., 2004). Unlike these blockers that need to be ingested in large quantities (4-6 g per meal) to show significant effect, trestatin (a mixture of complex oligosaccharides produced microbiologically) has been proven to be a...


The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is achieved by clinical and biochemical laboratory means. RAIU no longer plays a role in documenting hypothyroidism. The high level of iodine intake through diet and nutritional supplements in North America has reduced the normal range of RAIU such that there is now substantial overlap between the normal and hypothyroid ranges. Both congenital and acquired organification defects can result in situations in which the trapping function is preserved despite little or no production of organified iodine. Under the stimulation of elevated TSH, this can result in an elevated RAIU, often to very high values, in the face of profound hypothyroidism. Organification defects can be demonstrated by use of the perchlorate release test.

Future Directions

Colon cancer control in high-risk patients such as those with hereditary polyposis and sporadic colon polyps is of growing importance as therapy modalities alone have not been fully effective in countering either the high incidence or low survival rate of colorectal cancer. The development of chemopreventive agents to prevent intraepithelial neoplasia such as benign adenomas and early neoplastic lesions represents a significant advance in clinical cancer prevention research.79 Clinical trials are the best means to identify the most-promising preventive agents for secondary prevention of colorectal cancer. Development of combination chemoprevention will be essential, just as combination chemotherapy has been so important in the treatment of invasive disease.60 It should be recognized, however, that intervention with nutritional supplements or diet modification alone might not be sufficient for secondary prevention of colorectal cancer. However, intervention by diet modification as...

Therapeutic Uses

All of the vitamins are used as specific treatments for their respective deficiency diseases. The dosages required will vary depending on the severity of the disease and the vitamin. Vitamins have also been used like drugs to treat diseases. However, unlike drug products, vitamins are not reviewed by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration before formulations appear on the market. Vitamins are considered to be dietary supplements under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). Vitamins and other dietary supplements are not permitted to be marketed as a treatment or cure for a specific disease or condition unless the vitamin is approved as a drug for that purpose. However, under DSHEA, supplement manufacturers may make health claims, such as the link between a food substance and a disease or health-related condition. This may make it difficult for patients to assess the need for vitamin supplementation.

Distilled Spirits

The fermentation process generates beer with an alcohol content ranging from 3.4 to 6 . Most of the yeasts settle out following fermentation and are removed. These yeasts can be sold as flavor and dietary supplements. The beer is then aged, during which time residual unwanted flavor compounds are metabolized by remaining yeast cells or settle out. Cask-conditioned beer undergoes a second fermentation, which generates CO2 in the cask. Other beers must be carbonated to replace the CO2

Regulatory Issues

The explosion in popularity of herbs dates to the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), in which the FDA recognized herbal preparations as dietary supplements outside of its direct regulatory control. The act was a compromise between the FDA and manufacturing lobbies brought about in large measure by increased public demand for herbal products. Instead of FDA regulation, these products now fall under the far less stringent Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging or Holding Human Food regulations. Unlike prescription pharmaceuticals, which must be proved safe and effective before being marketed, supplements do not have to be either safe or effective as long as they avoid therapeutic claims on the label. Neither are they policed in regard to delivering accurate doses, although some consumer-oriented organizations, such as Consumer Lab (, are starting to hold manufacturers more accountable through random testing and...

Supplement Toxicity

Table B-1 Nutritional Supplements for the Eyes Most patients and many practitioners do not recognize that many so-called over-the-counter food supplements or herbal remedies have potential ocular toxicity. Home remedies, such as placing milk into the conjunctival cul-de-sac to make the eye white or lime juice to clear the eye, also carry the risk of severe ocular injury to the uninformed. Here are some of the unexpected and common ocular side effects of herbal treatments and nutritional supplements (based upon case reports submitted to the FDA, the World Health Organization WHO and the National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects) published in the American Journal of Ophthalmology.

Diabetes Cancer

The notion of diet and health is not new and dates to Hippocrates (400 b.c.) 8 this idea was enforced by the publicity surrounding the claims made by Nobel-laureate Linus Pauling in the 1970s, that megadoses of at least ten times the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of ascorbic acid could prevent or cure the common cold, flu, and cancer, and may have stimulated public interest in the use of vitamin supplements to enhance health. This proposal was later supported when it was discovered that vitamins C, E, and P-carotene play a role in protecting cells from oxidative free radical damage. Furthermore, epidemiological studies suggested that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and abundant in antioxidant nutrients, and other substances, reduced the risk of coronary heart disease and certain cancers (Figure 10.1).9 The holistic approach of food as medicine, and vice versa, that was begun in the 1970s is now receiving renewed attention. Nutritional issues highlight the relationship between...

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