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Features of the Fourth Edition

Completely updated and including the most current topics in microbiology today, Microbiology A Human Perspective, fourth edition, continues to be a classic. It has always been our goal to present sound scientific content that students can understand and rely upon for accuracy and currency, so that they can succeed in their preparation for meaningful careers. We have used constructive comments from numerous microbiology instructors and their students to continue to enhance the robust features of this proven text.

Eula Bingham PhD John Zapp PhD deceased

There had been no organic chemical industry in the United States before World War I. It was born just after the war, because during the war, the United States felt the lack of useful products such as aniline dyes (used for printing our stamps and currency, among other things) and pharmaceuticals (e.g., aspirin), which had been imported from Germany. Manpower and facilities used during the war for manufacturing munitions became available after 1918, and several companies decided to use them to get into the organic chemical business. Because neither employers nor workers had any previous experience in making and handling organic chemicals, the effects of unanticipated toxicity began to be encountered. That toxicity was not wanted because it was counterproductive and, along with other problems, had to be managed if the industry was to survive.

Cells Build and Degrade Numerous Molecules and Structures

Of this synthetic work is powered by chemical energy extracted primarily from sugars and fats or sunlight, in the case of plant cells, and stored primarily in ATP, the universal currency of chemical energy (Figure 1-14). In animal and plant cells, most ATP is produced by large molecular machines located in two organelles, mitochondria and chloro-plasts. Similar machines for generating ATP are located in the plasma membrane of bacterial cells. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts are thought to have originated as bacteria that took up residence inside eukaryotic cells and then became welcome collaborators (Chapter 8). Directly or indirectly, all of our food is created by plant cells using sunlight to build complex macromolecules during photosynthesis. Even underground oil supplies are derived from the decay of plant material.

Organizing the Human Genome

Matrix showing how amino acids are encrypted by specific three base codons within RNA. Amino acid signal encrypted by codon the genetic code Table 1.1. Matrix showing how amino acids are encrypted by specific three base codons within RNA. Amino acid signal encrypted by codon the genetic code

The Centrality of the AG of ATP

It is a truism that ATP is the energy currency of the cell because it is used in transport work, mechanical work, and chemical work. A 70-kg man contains about 50 g of ATP however, consuming and expending 2500 calories per day would result in the synthesis of about 180 kg of ATP (32). By now, this is textbook stuff, as is the statement that the hydrolysis of ATP produces about -30 kJ mol. I hope that this is recognized to be the AG of ATP, not the actual AG' of ATP, which is -53 to -60 kJ mol in all living tissues so far tested. The remarkable constancy of this value is surprising as well as intriguing.

Assessing population needs

The feasibility of using epidemiological data may be limited because it will often be the case that no locally based epidemiological data are available. The only feasible strategy then is to make rough approximations by using the results of national or international epidemiological studies, and applying these overall, or diagnosis-specific, rates to the local area. In carrying out such an exercise, two important points need to be kept in mind. First, the comparative populations used for different geographical areas, and for the comparisons of actual and estimated needs, should be made quite clear. It may be a local total population of 100 000, for example, or the population aged between 18 and 65. In either case the denominator being used must be precisely specified. Second, the 'currency', or units of service provision, must be described in unambiguous terms. For instance, the numbers of psychiatric beds needed or provided per 100 000 populations may mean adult acute beds, with or...

Limitations arising from interpretation of results

The last update of TISS was published in 1983. Since then many new interventions have been introduced into the intensive care setting. Not surprisingly, individuals have modified TISS locally to incorporate the new interventions. For each intervention added, a new weighting is assigned. As a result, there are many variations of TISS in use. It is assumed that, because of the common label, TISS is a common currency. Anecdotal evidence from the United Kingdom suggests that this is a false assumption.

Information and geometric structure

In an epoch of free-floating bits, the picture of information (even of intelligence) as purely a sequence of bits enjoys great currency. The digital encoding of information is of great effectiveness for certain purposes once encoded, such information can be safeguarded and transmitted with unrivalled accuracy and speed. No method is superior to that of bit-storage in the construction of digital computers and the networks they form, which are now in the course of transforming our world.

From dangerousness to risk

Risk is not the same as probability, for risk implies a degree of danger. Risk management is not the same as harm minimization, for it promises a prevention of unwanted outcomes. Psychiatry deals with disorders which have both substantial morbidities and mortalities. Good management may reduce but cannot, in our present state of knowledge, prevent all such morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, reducing morbidity and mortality in the long term may only be possible at the price of accepting an increased probability of mortality in the short term. Suicide in prison, for example, can be prevented by isolating and observing vulnerable inmates in transparent plastic bubbles, bereft of features from which suspension is possible, or by the simple expedient of chaining them hand and foot to a bed (both strategies are in use today). If the only good is preventing self-harm such Draconian measures acquire currency irrespective of the psychological damage

The Self Defeating Masochistic Personality

True to its name, the disorder ran into difficulties almost immediately. Despite its origin, masochism has historically been thought of as an extension of the feminine and submissive. The classical psychodynamic notion is that masochistic personalities unconsciously encourage and enjoy the abuse they receive. The empirical fact is that most cases of domestic violence are perpetrated by males. When these two are brought together, the result is a political powder keg. At least partially for this reason, the disorder was dropped from the DSM-IV Nevertheless, it continues to enjoy widespread currency among clinicians as a construct that explains a great many facets of human behavior. Moreover, a number of studies suggest that the disorder is common (Kass, 1987 J. Reich, 1987), and its existence is predicted by the evolutionary model.

Determining Steady State Concentrations

In general, a metabolic pathway can be thought of as a network of biochemical reactions whose function is to take in substrates from the environment and transform them into something that is required by the organism. Thus the organism may take in fuel molecules which are used to produce ATP which is, in turn, used as the main energy 'currency' of the cell. Or alternatively, the organism may take in substrates which it uses as the building blocks for different subcellular components. Thus we can often think of a metabolic pathway as having a source substrate (such as the fuel and building block molecules) and an end product or sink (such as ATP or the subcellular components).

Conflict Resolution Reconciliation

Peace is not sought for peace's sake but in order to preserve mutual interests. The same principle is known in human affairs. For example, the idea underlying the European Community was that nations with a recent history of mutual warfare may show an increased tendency to keep the peace if they are made mutually dependent on each other. Europeans have worked on increasing relationship value since World War II, recently culminating in the adoption of a common currency.

Land Distribution and Racial Equality

Economic role of wildlife what were the political implications of wildlife ranching and will economic efficiency or political considerations ultimately prevail in the future of the industry Given the current changes that are taking place in Zimbabwean commercial farming sector,13 this analysis and its results must be considered in the wider southern African context, where redistribution and restitution invariably eclipse arguments about economic efficiency and growth. In terms of its economic contribution, the analysis concludes that the commercial wildlife sector played an important role in the development of tourism as the third largest foreign currency earner. It also concludes that the sector had at a macro-level played a very important role in the maintenance and conservation of biodiversity.

Early Historical Forerunners

The histrionic personality was first officially recognized in DSM-III, published in 1980, replacing the psychoanalytic school's older, gender-biased hysterical personality. No longer an officially recognized term, hysteria nevertheless remains in widespread currency. Its several meanings refer to a state of intense emotional overexcitement, the neurosis that presumably eventuates in such states, and the conversion of emotional conflicts into physical symptoms (also known simply as conversion hysteria). In psychodynamic thought, these ideas are intimately connected. Historically, the relief of hysterical conversion symptoms through hypnosis by Charcot eventually led Freud to the discovery of the unconscious. Ironically, the evolution of early ideas on hysteria holds some similarity to the evolution of psychoanalysis itself. In the beginning, both the psychosexual stages of early analysis and the hysteria of the Greeks were directly connected to the functioning of sexual organs....

Cognitive Psychology of Moral Intuitions

The view that has gained currency in recent years is quite different. In this view, indignation is like a fear of spiders. One does not fear spiders because they are dangerous one just fears them. Because people tend to attribute their reactions to the objects that evoke these reactions, the feared spider is perceived as a dangerous spider. However, the perception of dangerousness is not the reason for the fear or even its cause both the fear and the perception are symptoms of an uncontrolled reaction to spiders. Many people who are afraid of spiders know that their fear is objectively groundless and lacks a reason. Haidt (2001) described the equivalent state in the moral domain as moral dumbfounding, the experience of strong moral reactions for which no adequate reason comes to mind. Indignation, we suggest, is often not caused by reasons, and people can be dumbfounded when they are asked to explain why they are indignant. In fact, some puzzling outcomes, in both politics and law,...

Treatment Management And Cost

It is also important to deal with the issues related to cost of the disease for the patient, family and society. Unfortunately, available information is limited, and almost restricted to Europe and North America, which makes it difficult to extrapolate it to other regions of the world. It is perhaps better to analyse it in relative terms compared with a control population than to make absolute currency estimates. In a recently published study from the United States, the annual utilization of health services and cost for the PD cohort was significantly higher than for a control population. On an annual basis, PD patients spend approximately two more days in hospital, 43 more days in long-term care institutions, and fill more than 20 more prescriptions than do the controls. The total annual cost is more than double that of the control population, even before adding indirect costs (uncompensated care, productivity loss, etc.). Prescription drugs account for roughly 5 of total costs,...

The behavioral record

But despite these echoes of what we would instinctively recognize as humanity, the Neanderthals showed effectively no evidence at all (at least until post-contact times) of symbolic activities of the kind that so richly characterized the lives of the Cro-Magnons. Yes, the occasional example of symbolic production (scratches on plaques, and so forth) has been reported from Middle Paleolithic (Neanderthal-equivalent) times. But the symbolic nature of virtually all such manifestations has been disputed at one time or another, and at best they are exceptions that prove the rule. It is quite possible that we might glimpse symbolism in the products of the occasional individual in early times but what is important is not what individuals might privately or sporadically do, but what becomes common cultural currency within societies.

Loss of capacity and dependence on help

The 'needs of caregivers' are part of the currency of discussion amongst service providers, but people in everyday life are often slow to take on the identity of 'caregiver'. They think of themselves as simply participating in a normal aspect of family life. Younger people with duties to their work, partner, and children, and who experience conflict with the needs of their parents, may be readier to seek professional help than are the ageing spouses of a failing partner. The latter may accept caring as an inevitable development of a lifelong relationship, and may resent offers from outside as unnecessarily presumptuous or as an intrusion upon their privacy.

Cellular Energetics

The most important molecule for capturing and transferring free energy in biological systems is adenosine triphosphate, or ATP (see Figure 2-24). Cells use the energy released during hydrolysis of the terminal high-energy phosphoanhydride bond in ATP to power many energetically unfavorable processes. Examples include the synthesis of proteins from amino acids and of nucleic acids from nucleotides (Chapter 4), transport of molecules against a concentration gradient by ATP-powered pumps (Chapter 7), contraction of muscle (Chapter 19), and movement (beating) of cilia (Chapter 20). Although other high-energy molecules occur in cells, ATP is the universal currency of chemical energy it is found in all types of organisms and must have occurred in the earliest life-forms.

PeSI 5 5f

Work exposure after work performance efficiency begins to fail, but before current physiological limits are reached, is inappropriate for both the safety and productivity of the worker, their colleagues, and the systems within which they operate.'' As an alternative, they propose that occupational exposure standards should incorporate both physiological and psychomotor performance factors. This paradigm shift gains extra currency given the importance of thermal perception on both behavioral and exercise response to heat stress. However, the development of such standards is presently still in its infancy, due to the numerous neuropsychological factors underlying task performance and also difficulty in developing valid and practical field measures of such factors.

Security

Patients confidentiality and security have become extremely important with the new HIPAA regulations. Incoming and outgoing patient data must be encrypted and should be accessible only by authorized users with username and password, and must be in compliance with HIPAA regulations.

Noxious Theories

In 1775, chemical carcinogenesis was observed by the English surgeon Sir Percival Pott, who related the cause of scrotal skin cancer in a number of his patients to a common history of occupational exposure to large amounts of coal soot as chimney sweepers when they were boys. The connection between soot and cancer was confirmed in 1915 by the first controlled experimental induction of cancer in laboratory animals by Katsusaburo Yamagiwa. The experiment established chemical carcinogenesis, and specifically occupational exposure, as one possible cause for malignant growths. An unrelated form of occupational exposure was documented in the mid-19th century in silver miners from St. Joachimsthal, Bohemia (today Czech Republic). Silver had been extracted there since the mid-16th century and was manufactured into the Joachimsthaler silver coins that were predecessors of the German currency Thaler and later the American currency dollar. These miners had a high...