Vocabulary

infectious disease pathogen Koch's postulates mucous membrane inflammatory response histamine phagocyte neutrophil macrophage natural killer cell complement system interferon figure 47-1

By applying the four principles of Koch's postulates, scientists can identify the pathogen that causes an infectious disease.

1. The pathogen must be present in an animal that has the disease and absent in healthy animals.

KOCH'S POSTULATES

KOCH'S POSTULATES

, The pathogen must be isolated from the sick animal and grown in a laboratory.

3. When the isolated pathogen is injected into a healthy animal, the animal must develop the disease.

1. The pathogen must be present in an animal that has the disease and absent in healthy animals.

, The pathogen must be isolated from the sick animal and grown in a laboratory.

4. The pathogen should be taken from the second animal and grown in the laboratory. The pathogen cultured from the second animal should be the same as the pathogen cultured from the first animal.

3. When the isolated pathogen is injected into a healthy animal, the animal must develop the disease.

4. The pathogen should be taken from the second animal and grown in the laboratory. The pathogen cultured from the second animal should be the same as the pathogen cultured from the first animal.

TABLE 47-1 Pathogens Responsible for Some Human Diseases

Disease

Pathogen

Method of transmission

Botulism

Clostridium botulinum (bacterium)

contaminated food

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