Vocabulary

Human Genome Project proteome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) bioinformatics proteomics two-dimensional gel electrophoresis figure 13-7

Researchers with the Human Genome Project developed automated DNA sequencing machines that could determine the order of millions of base pairs per day. The four bases are represented by different colors.

figure 13-7

Researchers with the Human Genome Project developed automated DNA sequencing machines that could determine the order of millions of base pairs per day. The four bases are represented by different colors.

Word Roots and Origins proteome a new, combined word from prote in the word protein and ome in the word genome

4. The exons of human genes are spliced in many ways, allowing the same gene to encode different versions of a protein. An organism's complete set of proteins is called its proteome. The human proteome is quite complex.

5. About half of the human genome arises from the shuffling of transposons, pieces of DNA that move from one chromosome location to another. Transposons appear to have no specific role in development or physiology.

6. There are about 8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), unique spots where individuals differ by a single nucleotide. SNPs are important for mapping the genome in more detail, and in the identification of human disease genes.

Model Species

In order to better understand how human genes control development and health and to explain how genes affect behaviors, biologists want to map similar genes in model species. Since the Human Genome Project, many other genome sequence projects have been completed, and more are underway. Some of the model species for genome sequencing, as seen in Table 13-1, include a bacterium, a roundworm, a fruit fly, a zebrafish, and a mouse. Researchers can induce mutations in each of these species to look for gene actions. Because they represent such a broad phylogenetic base, it is possible to make valid generalizations that relate to larger groups.

TABLE 1B-1 Genome Sizes of Some Species

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