Vocabulary

immune system lymphocyte thymus spleen

B cell

T cell antigen immune response helper T cell cell-mediated immune response cytotoxic T cell humoral immune response plasma cell antibody memory cell immunity vaccination allergy asthma autoimmune disease figure 47-5

The cells and tissues of the immune system recognize and attack foreign substances in the body.

Word Roots and Origins antigen from the Greek anti, meaning "against,' and gen, meaning "producing"

Lymph nodes, located throughout the body along the vessels of the lymphatic system, contain lymphocytes. (Recall that the lymphatic system gathers and filters the fluid, called lymph, that leaks from the circulatory system.) Lymph nodes collect pathogens from the lymph and expose them to lymphocytes. The spleen, the largest lymphatic organ in the body, stores healthy blood cells, breaks down aging red blood cells, and helps develop lymphocytes and other types of white blood cells. The spleen also collects pathogens from the blood, and the lymphocytes in the spleen attack these trapped pathogens. The adenoids and tonsils are masses of lymph tissue found in the nose and throat.

There are two types of lymphocytes: B cells and T cells. B cells are made in the bone marrow and complete their development there. T cells are also made in the bone marrow but complete their development only after traveling to the thymus.

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