Understanding Key Concepts

5. Compare the two stages of cellular respiration.

6. Explain why the net yield of ATP molecules in gly-colysis is two, even though four ATP molecules are produced.

7. Describe what causes your muscles to become fatigued and sometimes develop cramps when you exercise too strenuously.

8. Calculate the efficiency of glycolysis if the number of ATP molecules produced during glycolysis were 5 times greater.

9. Name the two areas of the mitochondrion where the major stages of aerobic respiration occur.

10. Explain the importance of the cyclical nature of the Krebs cycle.

11. Define the specific role that oxygen plays in the electron transport chain.

12. Summarize the process of electron transport and chemiosmosis, including where the electron transport chain is located, what structures make up the electron transport chain, where the electrons come from and their characteristics, what happens to them as they move along the electron transport chain and as they reach the end of the chain, and what is accomplished by this process.

13. Explain why most eukaryotic cells produce fewer than 38—the maximum number possible—ATP molecules for every glucose molecule that is oxidized by cellular respiration.

14. Compare the efficiency of glycolysis alone with the efficiency of cellular respiration.

15. Unit 3—Cellular Respiration

Write a report summarizing how BMUffl * exercise physiologists regulate the diets and training of athletes. Find out how diets vary according to the needs of each athlete. Research the relationship between exercise and metabolism.

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