Hormones can be grouped into two types based on their structure: amino acid-based hormones and steroid (STIR-OYD) hormones. Amino acid-based hormones are hormones made of amino acids. An amino acid-based hormone can be either a single modified amino acid or a protein made of 3 to 200 amino acids. Most amino acid-based hormones are water soluble. Steroid hormones are lipid hormones that the body makes from cholesterol. Steroid hormones are fat soluble.
Word Roots and Origins hormone from the Greek hormon, meaning "to excite"
Observing Solubilities Materials 100 mL beakers (4), water, gelatin, cooking oil, vitamin E capsule, dissecting pin, spoon
1. Put 75 mL of water into a beaker. Place 2.5 g of gelatin (protein) into the beaker. Stir. Does the gelatin dissolve? Record your observations.
2. Put 75 mL of oil into a beaker. Repeat the procedure in step 1 using oil instead of water.
3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 using the contents of a vitamin capsule (fat) instead of gelatin.
Analysis Which substance is fat soluble? Which substance is water soluble? Relate the solubilities of hormones to whether they enter their target cells or work outside them.
O Amino acid-based hormones, such as glucagon, bind to receptor proteins on the cell membrane. Q The binding activates an enzyme, which converts ATP to cyclic AMP. O Cyclic AMP starts a cascade of enzyme activations. O Eventually, glycogen is broken down to individual glucose molecules.
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