Section 4

Protein Synthesis

• The flow of genetic information can be symbolized as DNA —► RNA —► protein.

• RNA has the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose and uracil in place of thymine. RNA is single stranded and is shorter than DNA.

• During transcription, DNA acts as a template for directing the synthesis of RNA.

• The genetic code identifies the specific amino acids coded for by each mRNA codon.

• The RNA called mRNA carries the genetic "message" from the nucleus to the cytosol; rRNA is the major component of ribosomes; tRNA carries specific amino acids, helping to form polypeptides.

Vocabulary ribonucleic acid (RNA) (p. 204) transcription (p. 204) translation (p. 204) protein synthesis (p. 204)

ribose (p. 205) messenger RNA (mRNA) (p. 205) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) (p. 205)

transfer RNA (tRNA) (p. 205) RNA polymerase (p. 206) promoter (p. 206) termination signal (p. 206)

genetic code (p. 207) codon (p. 207) anticodon (p. 208) genome (p. 210)

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