Section 3


• AIDS results from infection by HIV. HIV can replicate inside macrophages and helper T cells.

• The course of HIV infection usually has three phases: phase I, the asymptomatic phase; phase II, the beginning or worsening of symptoms; and phase III, AIDS.


• HIV is transmitted mainly through sexual contact and the use of HIV-contaminated needles.

• Because its genes mutate often, HIV can quickly become resistant to medication. The rapid evolution of HIV also makes it difficult to develop an effective vaccine.

opportunistic infection (p. 971)

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