Section 3

Cell Organelles and Features

• Cell membranes are made of two phospholipid layers and proteins.

• The nucleus directs the cell's activities and stores DNA.

• Mitochondria harvest energy from organic compounds and transfer it to ATP.

• Ribosomes are either free or attached to the rough ER and play a role in protein synthesis.

• The rough ER prepares proteins for export or insertion into the cell membrane. The smooth ER builds lipids and participates in detoxification of toxins.

• The Golgi processes and packages proteins.

• Vesicles are classified by their contents.

• The cytoskeleton is made of protein fibers that help cells move and maintain their shape.

Vocabulary phospholipid bilayer (p. 77) chromosome (p. 79) nuclear envelope (p. 79) nucleolus (p. 79)

ribosome (p. 79) mitochondrion (p. 80) endoplasmic reticulum (p. 81) Golgi apparatus (p. 82)

lysosome (p. 82) cytoskeleton (p. 84) microtubule (p. 84) microfilament (p. 84)

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