Section 3

Water and Solutions

• The two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom that make up a water molecule are arranged at an angle to one another.

• Water is a polar molecule. The electrons in the molecule are shared unevenly between hydrogen and oxygen. This polarity makes water effective at dissolving other polar substances.

• Hydrogen bonding accounts for most of the unique properties of water.

• The unique properties of water include the ability to dissolve many substances, cohesion and adhesion, the ability to absorb a relatively large amount of energy as heat, the ability to cool surfaces through evaporation, and the low density of ice.

• A solution consists of a solute dissolved in a solvent.

• Water ionizes into hydronium ions and hydroxide ions.

• Acidic solutions contain more hydronium ions than hydroxide ions. Basic solutions contain more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions.

• Buffers are chemicals that neutralize the effects of adding small amounts of either an acid or a base to a solution.

Vocabulary

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