Section 2

Classification of Fungi

• The phylum Zygomycota is coenocytic (their hyphae lack septa). Asexual sporangiospores form within sacs called sporangia. Sexual reproduction results in zygospores.

• The phylum Basidiomycota includes mushrooms. Mushrooms are sexual reproductive structures called basidiocarps. Basidiocarps produce basidia, on which basidiospores form.

• Most fungi are in the phylum Ascomycota, or sac fungi. Hyphae form a cup-shaped ascocarp, in which ascospores form.

Vocabulary rhizoid (p. 530) stolon (p. 530) gametangium (p. 530) zygosporangium (p. 531)

basidium (p. B31) basidiocarp (p. B31) basidiospore (p. B31) ascogonium (p. B32)

• Yeast are unicellular Ascomycota. They reproduce asexually by budding. Yeast are used in brewing, baking, and genetic engineering.

• Mycorrhizae are symbiotic structures that form between plant roots and a fungus. The fungus provides certain ions and other nutrients to the plant and, in turn, the fungus gets sugars from the plant.

• Lichens represent symbiotic relationships between fungi and photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria or green algae.

antheridium (p. B32) ascocarp (p. B32) ascus (p. B32) ascospore (p. B32)

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