Section 2

The Human Genome Project

• The goals of the Human Genome Project were to determine the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome and map the location of every gene on each chromosome. This information will advance the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of human genetic disorders.

• The Human Genome Project yielded important information about human genes and proteins. For example, there are far fewer protein-encoding human genes than once believed but far more proteins because of the complex way they are encoded.

• The Human Genome Project included sequencing the genes of many model species to provide insights into gene function.

• Information from the Human Genome Project has been applied to medical, commercial, and scientific purposes.

• Bioinformatics uses computers to catalog and analyze genomes. Microarrays, two-dimensional arrangements of cloned genes, allow researchers to compare specific genes such as those that cause cancer. Proteomics studies the identities, structures, interactions, and abundances of an organism's proteins.

Vocabulary

Human Genome Project

(p. 261) proteome (p. 262)

single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)

(p. 262)

bioinformatics (p. 263) proteomics (p. 264)

two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (p. 264)

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