• The hypothalamus and pituitary gland serve as the major control centers for the release of many hormones.
• The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism and development and calcitonin that helps regulate blood calcium levels.
• The adrenal glands secrete epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, aldosterone, and other hormones that help regulate metabolism, the body's responses to stress and danger, and water balance.
• The gonads secrete estrogen and progesterone in females and androgens, including testosterone, in males. These hormones regulate reproductive functions.
• The islets of Langerhans of the pancreas secrete glucagon and insulin, which regulate blood glucose levels.
Vocabulary hypothalamus (p. 1034) pituitary gland (p. 1034) thyroid gland (p. 1036) adrenal gland (p. 1036) epinephrine (p. 1037) norepinephrine (p. 1037)
Cortisol (p. 1037) gonad (p. 1037) puberty (p. 1037) luteinizing hormone (p. 1037) follicle-stimulating hormone (p. 1037)
• Other endocrine glands include the thymus gland, the pineal gland, the parathyroid glands, and endocrine cells of the digestive system.
• Feedback mechanisms help maintain homeostasis.
• In negative feedback, the final product in a series inhibits the first step. Many hormones use negative feedback systems because they prevent excess accumulation of a hormone product.
• In positive feedback, the final product in a series stimulates the first step.
• Antagonistic hormones, such as glucagon and insulin, work together to regulate the levels of critical substances.
estrogen (p. 1037) progesterone (p. 1037) androgen (p. 1037) testosterone (p. 1037) insulin (p. 1039) diabetes mellitus (p. 1039)
melatonin (p. 1040) negative feedback (p. 1041) positive feedback (p. 1042)
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