Section 2

Types of Animal Behavior

• According to the optimality hypothesis, animals tend to maximize food gathering while minimizing effort and exposure to predators.

• Three types of competitive behavior include aggressive behavior, territorial behavior, and formation of dominance hierarchies.

• Sexual selection happens when certain mates are chosen over others based on a certain trait or set of traits.

• Animals show variation in mating systems and parental care, based on the amount of care the young require at birth.

• Five forms of communication are visual, sound, chemical, touch, and language.

• The benefits of social behavior include predator protection and successful foraging. The costs of social behavior include increased competition and risk of spreading disease.

• Some behaviors occur in synchrony with cyclical changes in the environment. These cyclic behaviors include circadian rhythms, lunar cycles, hibernation, and migration.

Vocabulary optimality hypothesis (p. 893) aggressive behavior (p. 893) territory (p. 894) dominance hierarchy (p. 894)

courtship (p. 895) communication (p. 896) aposematic coloration (p. 896) mimicry (p. 896)

pheromone (p. 896) social behavior (p. 897) circadian rhythm (p. 898) hibernation (p. 898)

migration (p. B9B)

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