Section 1


• Describe the basic body plan of a sponge.

• Describe the process of filter feeding in sponges.

• Contrast the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction in sponges.

vocabulary sponge sessile choanocyte ostium osculum spongin spicule filter feeding amoebocyte gemmule regeneration hermaphrodite Topic: Sponges Keyword: HM61443

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figure 33-1

The body of a sponge is a hollow cylinder. Water is drawn into the cylinder through many small pores (ostia) in the sponge's body and exits through the osculum, the opening at the top of the sponge.

Spicules are tiny, hard particles of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide that are often shaped like spikes. Calcium carbonate is one of the compounds that give bones and teeth their hardness, and silicon dioxide is the major component of glass and quartz. Still other sponges have a combination of spongin and spicules.

Word Roots and Origins amoebocyte from the Greek amoibe, meaning "change," and kytos, meaning "cavity"

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