• The major types of terrestrial ecosystems, known as biomes, are tundra, tropical forest, temperate forest, taiga, temperate grassland, savanna, chaparral, and desert.
• Tundra is a cold biome characterized by permafrost under the surface of the ground.
• Tropical forests receive abundant rainfall and have stable temperatures. They have a greater species richness than any other biome.
• Temperate biomes have four annual seasons. The trees in temperate deciduous forests shed all of their leaves in the fall.
• Taiga is cold but is warmer than tundra and receives more precipitation. Taiga is dominated by coniferous forests.
• Temperate grasslands occur in areas with cold winters and hot summers. They are dominated by grasses and herds of grazing animals.
• Savannas are tropical grasslands with alternating wet and dry seasons. They are dominated by herds of grazing animals.
• Chaparral is found in coastal regions with warm, dry summers and mild winters. It is dominated by dense, spiny shrubs.
• Deserts receive less than 25 cm (9.9 in.) of precipitation per year. Desert inhabitants have adaptations for conserving water.
• The photic zone in the ocean receives light, but the aphotic zone does not. Other zones of the ocean are defined based on their relative locations.
• In the intertidal zone, organisms must be able to tolerate drying and pounding by waves.
• The neritic zone receives nutrients from the bottom of the ocean and from land. It is the ocean's richest zone in terms of the number of species and individuals.
• Production in the oceanic zone is limited by a shortage of nutrients.
• Estuaries are very productive areas where rivers and streams flow into the sea.
• Oligotrophic lakes are clear and lacking in nutrients. Eutrophic lakes are rich in nutrients and are often murky.
• Rivers and streams are bodies of water that flow down an elevation gradient within a watershed.
• Freshwater wetlands are areas of land, such as marshes and swamps, that are covered with fresh water for at least part of each year.
Vocabulary aphotic zone (p. 423) photic zone (p. 423) intertidal zone (p. 423)
neritic zone (p. 423) oceanic zone (p. 424) pelagic zone (p. 424)
benthic zone (p. 424) plankton (p. 424) estuary (p. 425)
eutrophic lake (p. 427) oligotrophic lake (p. 427) freshwater wetland (p. 428)
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