Section 1

Genetic Equilibrium

• Population biologists study many different traits in populations, such as size and color.

• Traits vary and can be mapped along a bell curve, which shows that most individuals have average traits, whereas a few individuals have extreme traits.

• Variations in genotype arise by mutation, recombination, and the random fusion of gametes.

Vocabulary microevolution (p. 317) population genetics (p. 317)

• The total genetic information available in a population is called the gene pool.

• Allele frequencies in the gene pool do not change unless acted upon by certain forces.

• The principle of Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium is a theoretical model of a population in which no evolution occurs and the gene pool of the population is stable.

allele frequency (p. 318) phenotype frequency (p. 319)

Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium (p. 320)

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