Section 1

Overview of Plants

• Three adaptations have allowed plants to be successful on land: a cuticle to prevent water loss, spores and seeds to protect reproductive cells, and special tissues for absorbing and transporting materials within the plant.

• The 12 phyla of plants are divided into two groups based on the presence of vascular tissue. The three phyla of nonvascular plants have neither true vascular tissue nor roots, stems, or leaves. Most members of the nine phyla of vascular plants have vascular tissue and true roots, stems, and leaves.

• Vascular plants can be further divided into two groups, seedless plants and seed plants. Seed plants include four phyla of gymnosperms and one phylum of angiosperms.

• All plants have a life cycle known as alternation of generations. In alternation of generations, a haploid gametophyte produces gametes. Gametes unite and give rise to a diploid sporophyte. Through meiosis, the sporophyte produces haploid spores, which develop into gametophytes.


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