Section 1

Chromosomes

• Chromosomes are tightly coiled DNA molecules. In eukaryotes, proteins called histones help maintain the compact structure of chromosomes.

• Chromosomes in prokaryotes are simpler than chromosomes in eukaryotes.

• Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell.

• Sex chromosomes are chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism. All of the other chromosomes in an organism are autosomes.

• Cells having two sets of chromosomes are diploid (2n). Haploid cells (1n) have half the number of chromosomes that are present in diploid cells.

Vocabulary chromosome (p. 151) histone (p. 151) chromatid (p. 152)

centromere (p. 152) chromatin (p. 152) sex chromosome (p. 152)

autosome (p. 1S2) homologous chromosome (p. 1S2)

karyotype (p. 1S3) diploid (p. 1Ö3) haploid (p. 1Ö3)

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