Section 1

DNA Technology

• DNA technology provides the tools to manipulate DNA molecules for practical purposes.

• The repeating sequences in noncoding DNA vary between individuals and thus can be used to identify an individual.

• To identify a DNA sample, scientists isolate the DNA and copy it using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The DNA is then cut into fragments using restriction enzymes. The fragments are separated by size using gel electrophoresis.

Vocabulary length polymorphism (p. 255) variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) (p. 255)

polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (p. 256) primer (p. 256) restriction enzyme (p. 257)

The resulting pattern is compared to the pattern from a known sample of DNA treated in the same way. Restriction enzymes recognize and cut specific nucleotide sequences. This process creates single chains called sticky ends on the ends of each piece of DNA. The enzyme DNA ligase can rejoin sticky ends and connect DNA fragments. Researchers use restriction enzymes to insert DNA fragments into vectors. The resulting DNA from two different organisms is called recombinant DNA.

gel electrophoresis (p. 257) DNA fingerprint (p. 257) genetic engineering (p. 258) recombinant DNA (p. 258)

clone (p. 25S) vector (p. 25S) plasmid (p. 259) probe (p. 259)

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