Section 1

Biodiversity

• Naturalists have invented several systems for categorizing biodiversity, which is the variety of organisms considered at all levels from populations to ecosystems.

• Naturalists replaced Aristotle's classification system because it did not adequately cover all organisms and because his use of common names was problematic.

• Taxonomy is the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms.

Vocabulary biodiversity (p. 337) taxonomy (p. 338) taxon (p. 338) kingdom (p. 339)

domain (p. 339) phylum (p. 339) division (p. 339) class (p. 339)

• Carolus Linnaeus devised a seven-level hierarchical system for classifying organisms according to their form and structure. From the most general to the most specific, the levels are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. An adaptation of this system is still in use today.

• An important part of Linnaeus's system was assigning each species a two-part scientific name—a genus name, such as Homo, and a species identifier, such as sapiens.

order (p. 339) family (p. 339) genus (p. 339) species (p. 339)

binomial nomenclature

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