Section 1

Glycolysis and Fermentation

• Cellular respiration is the process by which cells break down organic compounds to produce ATP.

• Cellular respiration begins with glycolysis, which takes place in the cytosol of cells. During glycolysis, one glucose molecule is oxidized to form two pyruvic acid molecules. Glycolysis results in a net production of two ATP molecules and two NADH molecules.

• If oxygen is not present, glycolysis may lead to anaerobic pathways in which pyruvic acid is converted into other organic molecules in the cytosol. Glycolysis combined with these anaerobic pathways is called fermentation. Fermentation does not produce ATP, but it does regenerate NAD+, which helps keep glycolysis operating.

• In lactic acid fermentation, an enzyme converts pyruvic acid into lactic acid.

• In alcoholic fermentation, other enzymes convert pyruvic acid into ethyl alcohol and CO2.

• Through glycolysis, only about 2 percent of the energy available from the oxidation of glucose is captured as ATP.

Vocabulary cellular respiration (p.131) pyruvic acid (p. 131) NADH (p.131)

anaerobic (p. 131) aerobic respiration (p. 131) glycolysis (p. 132)

fermentation (p. 133)

lactic acid fermentation (p. 134)

alcoholic fermentation (p. 135) kilocalorie (p. 135)

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