S

sac fungi, 532-533, 532f, 1082 safety, laboratory, 24, 24f,

1066-1069 salamanders, 802, 802f saliva, 986, 986f salivary amylase, 986 salivary glands, 746, 746f, 986, 986f

Salmonella, 465, 472t saltwater adaptation, 782, 786, 791

sand dollars, 763 SA node (sinoatrial node), 935, 935f saprophytic organisms, 527 sapwood, 595, 595f sarcodines, 506-507, 506f 1080 sarcomas, 228

sarcomere, 919-920, 919f 920f sarcopterygian, 799, 799f SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), 483-484, 485t, 491, 958t saturated fats, 59, 981 saturated solutions, 42 sauropods, 820, 820f savannas, 421, 421f scales, 787-788, 788f scallops, 708-710, 708f scaly anteaters, 336f, 374t scanning electron microscopes

(SEMs), 22 Schistosoma, 598, 649f 692f schistosomes, 692-693, 692f schistosomiasis, 693 schizocoely, 666, 666f Schleiden, Matthias, 70 Schwann, Theodor, 70 Schwann cells, 1005, 1006f scientific method, 13-18, 14f-15f 16f sclerenchyma, 583f, 584-585 scolex, 693, 693f scorpions, 733, 733f scrotum, 1049 sea anemones, 681, 681f sea cucumbers, 764, 764f sea hares, 657, 657f, 659 sea lilies, 762-763, 762f sea squirts, 770, 770f sea stars, 763-764, 763f, 764f larvae, 761f observing anatomy of, 774 observing embryonic development, 1064-1065 species interactions, 407, 407f structure and function, 760f, 761f 765-767, 765f, 766f, 767f sea urchins, 761 f, 763, 763f, 774-775

seaweeds, 510, 512, 512f 518. See also algae sebum, 925

secondary growth, 586, 590,

594-595, 595f secondary succession, 408-410, 409f second messenger, 1032

secretin, 1040 secretion, 996 seed coats, 620, 620/ seedless vascular plants,

seedlings, 572, 628-629 seeds comparing, 628-629 germination, 572, 616-617,

617/; 621-622, 621/; 622/ structure of, 620, 620/; 628-629 winged, 563, 563/ segmentation, 657, 658/; 660 self-pollination, 174, 175/; 616 semen, 1051

semicircular canals, 1017/; 1018 semi-conservative replication,

200, 201/ semilunar valve, 933/; 934 seminal receptacle, 715 seminal vesicles, 1051, 1051/ seminiferous tubules, 1049, 1049/ Semmelweis, Ignaz, 475 SEMs. See scanning electron microscopes sense organs, 1016-1020, 1017/;

1018/; 1019/; 1028-1029 sensitive period, 891 sensory receptors, 1013, 1016-1020 sepals, 613, 613/ septa, 527, 527/; 825, 826/; 865,

865/ sessile, 673 setae, 713, 713/; 714/ severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), 483-484, 485/; 491, 958/ sex chromosomes, 152-153, 153/;

235-237, 236/; 237/ sex determination, 236 sex-influenced traits, 245 sex-linked traits, 237, 237/ sexually transmitted diseases,

466, 472/; 485/; 520 sexual reproduction. See also human reproductive system; plant reproduction in amphibians, 802, 810-812, 810/; 811/ in birds, 848-849 in bony fishes, 792, 792/ in bryophytes, 567 in cnidarians, 679-680, 679/; 680/ in conifers, 574 in earthworms, 715-716 in echinoderms, 767 evolutionary advantage of, 164 fertilization, 616-617, 617/; 663,

694, 694/ in fungi, 529-532, 530/; 531/; 532/ hermaphrodites, 659 in humans, 1056-1060 in insects, 748-749, 748/; 749/ in invertebrates, 659 mating systems, 895

in mollusks, 709-710 in protists, 504, 504f, 508 in reptiles, 829, 829f, 831 in seedless vascular plants, 570

in spiders, 733 in sponges, 675, 675f in vertebrates, 661 sexual selection, 316f 323, 323f

894-895, 894f shared characters, 342 sharks, 779, 780f, 784, 784f, 785f sheep,670-671, 1028-1029, 1028f shells, 507, 512, 706, 708, 711f shingles, 489, 489f, 492 shorebirds, 850, 850f shrews, 871, 871f 874t sickle cell anemia, 246t sieve plates, 585, 585f sieve tubes, 585, 585f, 596, 596f Silent Spring (Carson), 445, 450 simple diffusion, 98 simple leaves, 600, 600f sinks, carbohydrate, 596, 596f sinus venosus, 790, 790f siphons, 709 sirenians, 873, 873f SI units, 23, 23t, 28-29,

1072-1073, 1072t, 1073t skates, 779, 780f, 785 skeletal muscle, 907, 918f

919-922, 919f 920f 921f skeletal systems amphibians, 804-805, 805f birds, 841, 845, 845f bone in, 912-914, 912f 913f

914f 930-931 bone marrow, 912f 913, 913f

941 fishes, 787

humans, 875f, 876-877, 876f, 911-916, 911f 915f, 916 imaging techniques, 923, 923f joints, 915-916, 915f, 916, 916f primates, 875f, 876-877, 876f skin, 924-925, 924f 925f of bony fishes, 788 color, 242-243, 242f, 924 epithelial tissue, 908, 908f sensory receptors, 1020 skin cancer, 202f, 203, 203f skin gills, 765f, 766 Skinner, B. F., 889, 889f skulls, 277f, 906f sleeping sickness, 509, 519t slime molds, 503, 503f 514, 514f,

516-517, 517f 1081 sloths, 419, 419f 870 small intestine, 990-991, 990f smallpox, 492, 492f, 967 smog, 440

smoking, 226, 226f, 1024, 1024f smooth ER (endoplasmic reticulum), 74f 81, 81f 86 smooth muscle, 907, 918, 918f snails, 707-708, 707f snakes characteristics, 401f 826-827,

827f, 833-834, 833f, 834f constrictors, 833 elapid, 833

innate behavior, 888, 888f vipers, 27f, 399, 399f, 827, 833, 833f social groups, 897, 897f social insects, 752 sodium as human nutrient, 983, 983t,

1076t ionic bonds, 34, 34f origin of chemical name, 31 sodium-potassium pump,

102-104, 104f, 1007-1008, 1007f in urine formation, 996f, 997 in water, 40, 40f sodium-potassium pump,

103-104, 104f 1007-1008, 1007f solar tracking, 637, 637f solubility, 1032 solutions, 42

somatic-cell mutations, 239 somatic nervous system, 1014, 1014f sonar-induced damage, 892 songbirds, 853 sori (singular, sorus), 611 sow bugs, 727, 727f soybeans, 547f

Spallanzani, Lazzaro, 280, 280f spawning, 792 specialization, 365, 651 speciation, 326-330 classification, 339, 339f species evenness, 405, 438 species richness, 405-407, 406f 407f 419, 438-439 species-area effect, 406, 406f species evenness, 405, 438 species interactions. See community ecology species richness, 405-407, 406f,

407f 419, 438-439 specific heat, 41 spectral karyotyping (SKY), 227 Spemann, Hans, 662 sperm, 663, 663f 1050-1051, 1050f 1051f 1056-1057, 1056f, 1057f spermatids, 164 spermatogenesis, 164, 164f S phase, 155, 155f 158 spicules, 673-674, 674f spiders, 654f 731-733, 731f, 732f,

733f, 888 spinal cavity, 910, 910f spinal cord, 1013, 1013f 1020 spindle fibers, 156-157, 162, 162f spines, leaf, 599f spinnerets, 731f, 732 spiracles, 731f 732, 785 spiral cleavage, 665 spirillum, 463, 463f spirochetes, 466, 1079 Spirogyra, 70, 70f, 510, 525 spirometers, 954-955, 954f spleen, 961f 962 spliceosomes, 221, 221f sponges, 673-675, 674f, 675f 1084 spongin, 673-674 spongy bone, 912-913, 912f 913f spongy mesophyll, 600, 601f spontaneous generation,

279-281, 279/ 280/; 281/ sporangiophores, 528, 531 sporangiospores, 528 sporangium, 528 spores, 528, 528/, 563 sporophytes, 565-566, 566/, 569,

609-610, 609/ sporozoans, 502/, 509, 509/ sporozoites, 509, 519, 519/ squids, 425, 425/ 711 squirrels, 328, 328/ 897/ SRY gene, 236 stability, community, 407 stabilizing selection, 324, 325/ stamens, 613, 613/ Stanley, Wendell, 483 Staph infections, 472/, 473-474 staphylococci, 463 starfish. See sea stars start codons, 207, 207/ stem cells, 160, 662 stems, 592-597, 592/, 593/, 594/,

595/, 596/ Steno, Nicolaus, 302 sternum, 845, 845/ steroid hormones, 1031-1032,

1033/ steroids, 60 sterols, 77

St. Helens, Mount, 408, 408/ stigma, 174, 613, 613/ stimulants, 1022, 1023/ stimuli, 7

stingrays, 777/, 785, 785/ stipes, 512

stolons, 530, 592/ 623/ 623/ stomach, 789, 790/, 866, 987-988, 987/

stomach acid, 44/ stomata (singular, stoma),

121-122, 121/ 422, 563, 584, 602, 602/ stone canal, 765/ 766 stop codons, 207, 207/ strata, geological, 298, 298/ stratosphere, 440 stream ecosystems, 427, 427/ streptococci, 463 streptomycin, 465 striations, 917-918 strobilus, 571

stroma, 114, 114/ 117/ 118/ 120/ stromatolites, 289, 289/ structural genes, 218, 218/ strychnine, 400 Sturtevant, Alfred H., 238 style, 613, 613/ sublingual gland, 986/ submandibular gland, 986/ substitutions, 240, 240/ substrates, 57, 57/ successional changes, 408-410,

408/, 409/, 410/ suffixes, 1074/-1075/ sugars from the Calvin cycle, 120-123, 120/

in cellular respiration, 132, 132/ disaccharides, 56 in DNA, 197-198, 197/ monosaccharides, 55, 55/

in nutrition, 980, 980/ in RNA, 205, 205/ sulfur, 591/, 1077/ sulfur dioxide, 43/ superior vena cava, 937 superposition, principle of, 302 suppressor T cells, 964 surface area-to-volume ratio,

73, 73/, 110-111 surface cells, 73 surface tension, 41 survival of the fittest, 301 survivorship curves, 384, 384/ sustainability, 444 Suttle, Curtis, 493 sweat glands, 925, 925/ swifts, 852

swim bladders, 787, 790/, 791 swimmerets, 728, 728/ symbiosis, 403-404, 403/, 404/,

414-415, 533, 533/ symmetry, 649/, 655, 655/, 657, 760/, 762

sympathetic division of the nervous system, 1015, 1015/

sympatric speciation, 329 synapses, 1005, 1008-1009, 1008/, 1022, 1022/ synapsids, 862, 862/ synapsis, 161

synaptic cleft, 1005, 1006/; 1008/; 1009

synovial fluid, 915-916, 916/ synthetic auxins, 632-633, 632/, 633/

syphilis, 466, 475 syrinx, 853

systematics, 341-342, 342/. See also classification systemic circulation, 805, 805/

938, 938/ systolic pressure, 936

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