Phylum Anthocerophyta

Phylum Anthocerophyta (AN-thoh-suh-RAHF-uh-tuh) includes the hornworts, which also grow in moist, shaded areas. The name "hornwort" refers to the long, thin, hornlike sporophytes that grow out from the top of the plant, as shown in Figure 28-7. When the sporophytes are not present, hornworts look very similar to thalloid liverworts. Hornworts do not have a stem or leaves; the gametophyte of a hornwort is anchored to the ground by rhizoids. Hornworts share an unusual characteristic with algae: Each cell usually has a single large chloroplast rather than numerous small chloroplasts.

The sporophytes of hornworts are different from the sporophytes of mosses and liverworts in that they are green and carry out photosynthesis. The sporophytes continue to grow throughout the plant's life. They also are covered with a cuticle and have sto-mata. Tubelike cells at the center of the sporophytes resemble cells of vascular tissue and may transport materials in these plants. These characteristics indicate that the hornworts are closely related to vascular plants.

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