Part B

Observing the Internal Anatomy of the Grasshopper

7- CAUTION Dissecting instruments can cut you.

▼ Always cut in a direction away from your face and body. Using scissors, snip off the grasshopper's legs, wings, and antennae at their bases. Pin the body to the dissection tray. Then use the scissors to make a shallow cut just above the spiracles through the exoskeleton along both sides of the thorax and abdomen.

8- As you remove the exoskeleton, look at its underside, where the heart and aorta may be attached. Also look for muscles attached to the inside of the exoskeleton. Find and remove any fatty tissue (which your teacher can help you identify) that may hide other organs.

9- If your grasshopper is a female, look for its ovaries, which may contain elongated eggs. Refer to Figure 37-5 to see what the ovaries look like. If your grasshopper is a male, examine the ovaries and eggs in the female grasshopper of another student. Remove the ovaries and eggs (if present) from one side of the abdomen to uncover the digestive tract.

10- Make a table in your lab report like the one shown. As you observe each of the structures listed in the table, fill in the function of that structure.

11- Referring to Figure 37-5, look for the organs of the digestive tract: esophagus, crop, gizzard, midgut, hindgut, and anus. Find the salivary glands and the gastric ceca, which are also parts of the digestive system.

12- On the surface of the midgut and hindgut, look for the Malpighian tubules, which are tiny tubes that connect to the digestive tract.

13- Locate and identify the brain, ventral nerve cord, and ganglia.

14- Carefully cut away and remove the organs of the digestive system to expose some parts of the respiratory system. Referring to Figure 37-5, locate and identify tracheae that run along the dorsal and ventral parts of the body, as well as other tracheae that connect them. The larger tracheae lead to spiracles in the abdomen. Look also for swollen tracheae, called air sacs, which increase the volume of air drawn into the abdomen when the grasshopper breathes.

15- Jlt^ Dispose of your specimen according to ^^ the directions from your teacher. Then clean up your materials and wash your hands before leaving the lab.

Observing the Internal Anatomy of the Grasshopper

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