P

Pacific yew, 548/ 549/ Paine, Robert, 407 Palade, George, 86, 86/ Paleozoic era, 819, 820/ 1085/

palisade mesophyll, 600, 601/ palmitic acid, 59, 59/ pancreas, 1039-1040 in amphibians, 807, 807/ in bony fishes, 789, 790/ connecting organ systems, 910 in humans, 989, 989/ Pander, Christian, 662 Pangaea, 819, 819/ pangolins, 336/ 874/ papillae, 1019

parallel venation, 576, 576/ 600 paramecia, 22/ 85/ 99, 99/ 401,

507-508, 507/ parapodia, 713, 713/ parasitism, 403, 403/ 689,

692-693,692/ parasympathetic division of the nervous system, 1015, 1015/

parenchyma, 583, 583/ 585 parental care, 895, 895/ amphibians, 812, 812/ birds, 848-849, 849/ mammals, 875/ 895, 895/ reptiles, 829, 829/ parotid gland, 986/ parrots, 777/ 852, 852/ parthenogenesis, 698 passive transport, 97-102, 97/

99/ 99/ 100/ 101/ Pasteur, Louis, 281, 281/ 475, 967 Patau syndrome, 253/ patellar reflex, 1014, 1014/ patents on genes, 265 pathogens, 957, 957/ 9581 pathology, 472, 472/ Pavlov, Ivan, 890 PCR. See polymerase chain reaction Pearson's syndrome, 141 peat moss, 568, 568/ pectoral girdle, 789, 789/ pedicellariae, 765, 765/ pedigrees, 241, 241/ 243, 243/ pedipalps, 731, 731/ 733 peer review, 18 pelicans, DDT and, 848 pellicle, 507/ 508 pelvic cavity, 910, 910/ pelvic girdle, 789, 789/ penguins, 854 penicillin, 473, 475 Penicillium, 528, 536/ penis, 1051, 1051/ pentaradial symmetry, 649/

760/ 762 pepsin, 988 peptic ulcers, 460/ peptide bonds, 57, 57/ peptides, 988 peptidoglycan, 462, 463/ pericardium, 933 pericycle, 589/ 590, 590/ periodic table, 31-32, 31/

1076/—1077/ periosteum, 912, 912/ peripheral nervous system,

1010, 1013-1015 perissodactyls, 872 peristalsis, 987, 987/ permafrost, 418

Permian period, 819, 820/ 862,

1085/ peroxisomes, 83 pesticides, 445, 450, 548, 749, 848 petals, 613, 613/ petioles, 600 PET scan, 923, 923/ P generation, 175, 175/ 176/ phages bacteriophages, 195, 195/

486-488, 486/ 487/ prophages, 487, 487/ T phages, 486, 486/ phagocytes, 105, 941, 941/

959-960, 959/ phagocytosis, 105 pharyngeal pouches, 654, 768/ 769

pharynx, 947, 947/ 986, 986/ phenotype, 180, 180/ 184 phenotype frequency, 319-320,

319/ 334-335 phenotypic ratios, 183, 191 phenylketonuria (PKU), 246/ 247 pheromones, 751, 751/ 753, 896, 896/

phosphate groups, 52/ 54/

103-104, 104/ phospholipids, 59, 59/ 77, 77/ 98, 102

phosphorus, 374, 591/ 983, 983/ 1077/

photoautotrophs, 469/ 470 photoheterotrophs, 469/ photolyase, 203 photoperiodism, 640-641, 640/ 641/

photosynthesis, 112-129 in autotrophs, 113, 113/ C4 pathway, 122 Calvin cycle, 114, 120-124,

120/ 123/ in the carbon cycle, 372, 372/ carotenoids and, 115, 115/ cellular respiration and, 114,

114/ 131, 131/ chemical energy creation,

116-118, 116/ 117/ 118/ chemiosmosis and, 118, 118/ chlorophylls and, 115, 115/ chloroplasts, 114-116, 114/

116/ 118/ 120/ 123f in earliest cells, 289, 289/ electron transport chain, 116/ 117

factors affecting, 124, 124/ 601 global greenhouse and, 122 heterotrophs and, 113 in leaves, 600-601, 601/ light reactions, 114-118, 116/

122, 123/ overview, 114 photosystems in, 116-117,

166/ 117/ pigments in, 115, 115/ primary productivity from,

513/ 516 rate of, 128-129

photosystems, 116, 116/ 117/; 119 phototrophs, 469, 469/ phototropism, 636-637, 636/

637/; 637/ pH scale, 44, 44f phthalate esters, 1038 phycobilins, 512 phyla, 339, 339/

phylogenetic diagrams (trees), 307, 307/; 341, 780/; 801/; 822/; 844/: See also cladograms amphibians, 801/ analyzing, 780 animals, 653, 653/ arthropods, 725/ birds, 842/ mammals, 862/; 868/ plants, 565/ reptiles, 822/ "tree of life," 10, 10/ 340, 346-349, 1078/-1079/ vertebrates, 780/ phylogenetics, 341 phylogeny, 307, 307/ phytochrome, 641 phytoplankton, 494, 510, 512 pigments accessory, 115, 511 carotenoids, 115, 115/ chlorophylls, 115, 115/ in eyes, 1018 fall colors and, 642 in light reactions, 116-117,

in photosystems, 116-117 phytochrome, 641 in plastids, 89 storage in vacuoles, 88 in thylakoid membrane, 115 pikas, 870, 870/

pili (singular, pilus), 468, 468/ 471 pill bugs, 726-727, 727/; 738-739 Pinard, Jeff, 235, 235/; 248, 248/ pineal gland, 1040, 1040/ pinnipeds, 872 pinocytosis, 105 pinworms, 697 pioneer species, 408, 567 pistils, 613, 613/ pith, 589/; 594, 594/ pits, vessel, 585, 585/ pituitary gland, 1034-1035,

1034/; 1035/; 1035/; 1040/ placenta, 829, 863, 1058, 1058/ placental mammals, 863, 867,

870-874, 874/ placoid scales, 784, 784/ planarians, 690-691, 690/ plankton, 424, 727, 727/ plant cells, 87-90 cell plate, 158, 158/ cell walls, 87/ 88, 158, 158/;

observing mitosis in, 168-169 organelles in, 87, 87/ osmosis in, 100, 100/ plastids, 87/ 89, 89/ types of, 583-584, 583/

plant ecology, 554-556, 555/ plant reproduction, 608-629 plants. See also plant reproduction; vascular plants adaptations of, 400, 563-564, 563/

allergies to, 556, 556/ alternating life cycles, 565-566, 566/

animal interactions, 555, 555/ carnivorous, 599, 599/, 630/ classification of, 349/, 350,

564-565, 564/, 1082-1083 ecology of, 554-556, 555/ evolution of, 563-565, 565/ food crops, 546-548, 546/ in food production, 545-548 genome sizes, 262/ growth, 586, 586/ hormones, 631-638, 631/ 632/,

600/, 601/, 602/, 642 medicines from, 548-549, 548/,

553, 553/ mycorrhizae and, 533, 555, 588, 1082

nastic movements, 638-639,

nonvascular, 564/, 566/,

567-569, 567/, 568/, 569/ observing structures in,

606-607 reproduction, 608-629 responses, 630-647 roots, 587-591, 587/, 588/, 589/, 590/

seasonal responses, 640-642,

640/, 641/ stems, 592-597, 593/, 594/, 596/ storage in, 597 structure and function,

582-607 threatened or extinct species, 443/

tissue systems, 584-585, 584/, 585/

vascular tissue in, 564, 585, 585/, 589-590, 589/, 594 viruses, 483, 483/ as weeds, 555/, 556 planula, 680, 680/ plasma (blood), 940, 945 plasma cells, 964, 965/ plasma membrane, 74, 74/,

77-78, 77/, 78/, 467, 468/ plasmids, 259, 259/, 468, 468/, 473 plasmodial slime molds, 514, 1081

plasmodium, 514 Plasmodium, 509, 519, 519/ plasmolysis, 100, 100/ plastids, 89, 89/ plastron, 830 platelets, 942, 942/

Platyhelminthes, 689-694, 1084.

See also flatworms pleura, 946 plumule, 620, 620/ point mutations, 240 poison storage, in plants, 88 polar bodies, 164 polar fibers, 156, 156/ polarity, 39-40, 39/ 40/ 77, 77/ polar nuclei, 615, 615/ poliovirus, 493

pollen allergies, 556, 556/ pollen sacs, 615, 615/ pollen tubes, 608/, 612 pollination, 174, 174/, 404, 612,

442/, 456-457, 1038 polychaetes, 716 polygamy, 895

polygenic inheritance, 242, 242/ polymerase chain reaction

(PCR), 227, 256, 256/ 470/ polymers, 53, 53/ polypeptides, 57, 57/, 208-210,

208/, 209/, 218, 218/ polyps, 676, 676/ polysaccharides, 56, 980 polyunsaturated fats, 981 pond ecosystems, 427 pons, 1012, 1012/ population genetics, 316-325. See also genetics genetic bottlenecks, 389, 389/ species formation, 326-330, 329/, 330/ populations, 361/ 362, 381-397. See also population genetics demographic transition model,

392, 392/ doubling of, 391 human population growth,

390-392,391/ 392/ limiting factors, 386-388, 387/, 396-397 porphyrins, 119 Portuguese man-of-war, 678/ positive feedback, 1042, 1042/ positive-pressure breathing,

positron emission technology

(PET), 923, 923/ posterior ends, 655 postsynaptic cells, 1005,

1008-1009, 1008/ 1022/ postzygotic isolation, 328-329, 329/

potassium as nutrient, 591/, 983, 983/, 1076/ potassium-40, 284/ sodium-potassium pump, 102-104, 104/, 1007-1008, 1007/ potatoes, 592/, 597 prairies, 421, 421/ preadaptations, 799 precipitation, 371-372, 371/ precocial young, 849

prediction, 13-14, 15 preening, 844, 844/ prefixes, 23/, 1070/, 1074/-1075/ pregnancy alcohol ingestion during, 1023,

1023/; 1059 birth, 1060

genetic disease detection,

245-246, 245/ observing embryonic development, 905/; 1064-1065 ovarian cycle and, 1054-1055, 1054/

Rh incompatibility and, 944 trimesters, 1057-1060, 1058/; 1059/

prehensile appendages, 875 premolars, 865, 876/ pre-mRNA, 221, 221/ pressure-flow hypothesis, 596, 596/

pressure receptors, 1020 presynaptic neurons, 1005, 1008, 1008/; 1022/ prezygotic isolation, 328-329, 329/

primary electron acceptors,

116/; 117, 117/; 586 primary growth, 589-590, 589/;

primary productivity, 366-367,

367/; 444 primary succession, 408-410,

408/; 409/; 410/ primates, 871 anthropoids, 876, 876/ characteristics, 875, 875/ chimpanzees, 344, 344/; 598, 598/; 876-877, 876/; 890, 890/

hominids, 877-878, 877/;

878/-879/ humans, 876-877, 876/; 879-880, 879/ primers, 256, 256/ prions, 494, 494/ probability, 181 probes, 259, 259/ problem-solving learning, 890, 890/

Proctor, Lita, 494 producers, 366-367, 367/ products, reaction, 36 progesterone, 1037, 1054-1055,

1054/; 1059 proglottids, 693, 693/ prokaryotes. See also archaea; Archaea; Bacteria; bacteria cell division in, 154, 154/; 471, 471/

classification of, 461-466, 461/ DNA in, 152, 201, 468, 468/ as earliest cells, 288-289, 289/ endospores, 468/; 469, 469/ endosymbiosis of, 89, 290, 290/; 505, 505/

eukaryotes compared with, 90, 90/

gene expression in, 210, 217-219,218/ 219/ habitats, 470, 470/ movement of, 469 organelles as descendents of,

80, 89 respiration in, 137 structure, 75, 75/ 467-469, 468i viruses in, 486, 486/ prolactin, 1035, 1035i promoters, 206, 206f, 220 prophages, 487, 487/ prophase, 156, 156/, 161-163,

162/; 163/ proplastids, 89 prosimians, 876 prostaglandins, 1033 prostate cancer, 263 prostate gland, 263, 1051, 1051/ protease inhibitors, 491 proteins, 56-57 amino acids, 56-57, 56f, 57f, 144, 207-210, 208/; 209/ carrier, 101-104, 101/; 104/ in DNA, 151, 151/ in human nutrition, 65,

980-981, 981/ in plasma membranes, 78, 78/ repressor, 218/, 219, 219/ protein synthesis, 204-210. See also gene expression genetic code, 207, 207/ Golgi apparatus and, 82, 82/ modeling, 214-215 path of, 83, 83/ on rough ER, 81 secretion of proteins from cells, 86 transcription, 204, 204/; 206, 206/, 220, 222 translation, 204, 204/, 208-210, 208/; 209/ proteomes, 262 proteomics, 264, 264/ prothorax, 745, 745/ protists, 500-525 ciliates, 85, 85/ 502/, 507-508, 507/

classification of, 349, 349/, 502,

502/, 511/, 1080-1081 discovery of, 70, 70/ genome sizes, 262/ proto-oncogenes, 225, 225/ 491 protostomes, 665-666, 666/ protozoa, 502/, 506-507, 506/, 1080

proventriculus, 846, 846/ proviruses, 485

pseudocoelomates, 665, 665/, 695 pseudoplasmodium, 514 pseudopodia, 503, 506, 506/ psychoactive drugs, 1021-1024,

1022/ 1023/ psychrophilic prokaryotes, 470 pteropods, 708 pterosaurs, 821, 821/ puberty, 1037-1038 pulmonary circulation, 805,

805/, 937-938, 938/ pulmonary respiration, 806

pulmonary valve, 933/ 934 pulse, 935

pulse-chase technique, 86 punctuated equilibrium, 330, 330/

Punnett squares, 182-186, 182/,

183/, 184/, 185/; 186/ pupa, 749, 749/ pupil, 1018, 1019/ purines, 198, 198/ pygostyle, 845, 845/ pyloric sphincter, 807, 807/, 988 pyloric stomach, 765/, 766 pyrenoids, 510 pyrimidines, 198, 198/ pyruvic acid, 131-136, 132/, 133/, 134/, 135/; 138, 138/; 143/

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