The brain of a reptile is about the same size as that of an amphibian of the same size. However, the reptilian cerebrum is much larger. This region of the brain is involved in controlling and integrating behavior. Because vision is an important sense for most reptiles, the optic lobes, which receive input from the eyes, are large. Figure 41-9 shows the structure of a crocodile's brain.
Most reptiles rely on their sense of sight to detect predators and prey. The eyes of reptiles are usually large, and many species have keen vision. Hearing is also an important sense. As in amphibians, sound waves first strike the tympanum, or eardrum, and are transmitted to the inner ear through the movements of a small bone called the columella. The inner ear contains the receptors for sound. Snakes lack a tympanum and are sensitive only to low-frequency sounds. They are able to detect ground vibrations, which are transmitted to the columella by the bones of the jaw.
Jacobson's organ is a specialized sense organ located in the roof of the mouth of reptiles. Jacobson's organ is sensitive to odors. Like the snake shown in Figure 41-10, reptiles use their tongue to collect small particles from the environment. These particles are transferred to the Jacobson's organ when the tongue is drawn back into the mouth. Jacobson's organ is found in all reptiles except crocodiles and most turtles, but it is highly developed in lizards and snakes.
Pit vipers, such as rattlesnakes, copperheads, and water moccasins, are able to detect the heat given off by warm-bodied prey, such as mammals and birds. These snakes have one heat-sensitive pit below each eye, as shown in Figure 41-10. Input from these pits allows a snake to determine the direction of and distance to a warm object.
Some snakes have reduced senses of sight and hearing. They compensate with a sensitive forked tongue that is an organ of touch and smell. As the tongue darts in and out of the mouth, it picks up particles that are taken into the Jacobson's organ inside the snake's mouth, where even extremely low concentrations of odors can be detected.
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