Nails, which protect the ends of the fingers and toes, form from nail roots under skin folds at the base and sides of the nail. As new cells form, the nail grows longer. Like hair, nails are composed primarily of keratin. The nail body is about 0.5 mm (0.02 in.) thick. Nails grow at about 1 mm (0.04 in.) per week. Nails rest on a bed of tissue filled with blood vessels, giving the nails a pinkish color. The structure of a fingernail can be seen in Figure 45-17.

Changes in the shape, structure, and appearance of the nails may be an indicator of a disease somewhere in the body. They may turn yellow in patients with chronic respiratory disorders, or they may grow concave in certain blood disorders.

Hair, which protects and insulates the body, is produced by a cluster of cells at the base of deep dermal pits called hair follicles. The hair shaft is composed of dead, keratin-filled cells that overlap like roof shingles. Oil glands associated with hair follicles prevent hair from drying out. Most individual hairs grow for several years and then fall out.

Hair color is the result of the presence of the pigment melanin in the hair shaft. Black, brown, and yellow variants of melanin combine to determine an individual's hair color. Hair color is influenced by hereditary factors.

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