Nadh

in cellular respiration, 131, 133,

133/; 142-143, 142/ in the electron transport chain,

139-140, 140/ from fermentation, 134-135,

134/; 135/ in the Krebs cycle, 138/; 139 NADPH, 114, 116/; 117-118, 121 nails, 926, 926/ nanometers, 484 naphthalene acetic acid,

632-633, 632t; 633/ narcotics, 1023t nastic movements, 638-639, 638/; 639/

natural killer cells, 960 natural selection, 300-301, 300/. See also evolution; population genetics adaptation and, 300, 300/ 301,

399, 399/ animal behavior and, 888, 888/ in anole lizards of the

Caribbean, 308-309, 309/ artificial selection compared with, 310, 310/ in bacteria, 473, 473/ case study of, 308-309, 308/; 309/

Darwin and, 297-301 differential reproduction, 300/; 301

directional selection, 325, 325/ disruptive selection, 324, 325/ distribution of traits and,

324-325, 325/ effect on genetic equilibrium,

324-325, 325/ in finches of the Galápagos

Islands, 299 genetic variation and, 300 importance of, 12, 297 modeling, 314-315 overproduction and, 300, 300/ sexual selection, 323, 323/ stabilizing selection, 324, 325/ nauplius, 726, 726/ Neanderthals, 879/, 880 nectar, 616, 616/ negative feedback, 1041, 1041/, 1042/

nematocysts, 677, 677/ nematodes. See roundworms nephridia, 714/, 715 nephrons, 994-995, 994/; 995/ neritic zone, 423-424, 423/, 424/ nerve nets, 677-678, 677/ nervous systems. See also human nervous system amphibians, 808-809, 808/ birds, 848

bony fishes, 792, 792/ chordates, 768-769, 768/ cnidarians, 677-678, 677/ crustaceans, 729/, 730 earthworms, 715 echinoderms, 767 flatworms, 690/, 691 insects, 747 invertebrate, 659 mammals, 866 mollusks, 709-710 vertebrate, 661

net primary productivity,

366-367, 367/ net venation, 576, 576/, 600 neurons, 72/, 907, 908/,

1005-1009, 1007/, 1008/ neuropeptides, 1033 neurosecretory cells, 1035, 1035/ neurotoxins, 677-678, 680,

732-733, 732/, 833 neurotransmitters, 1005,

neutrons, 32, 32/ neutrophils, 960 niches, 365, 402

nicotine, 400, 1023/ 1024, 1024/ nictitating membrane, 809, 816 nitrates, 465 nitrification, 373/ 374 nitrites, 465, 470 nitrogen, 373-374, 373/ 465, 591/ 1077/

nitrogen cycle, 373-374, 373/ nitrogen fixation, 373, 373/

465-466, 466/ nitrogen-fixing bacteria, 373,

373/ 414-415, 464-465, 464/ nitrogenous bases, 197-198, 197/

198/ 205, 205/ Nitrosomonas, 465, 470 nodes of Ranvier, 1005, 1006/ noncoding DNA, 255 nondisjunction, 239, 239/ nongonococcal urethritis, 466 nonrandom mating, 323, 323/ 335 nonspecific defenses, 959-960,

959/ 960/ nonvascular plants, 564, 564/, 566-569, 566/ 567/ 568/ 569/

nonverbal communication, 753,

902-903 norepinephrine, 1037, 1037/ notochord, 654, 768, 768/ nuclear envelope, 79, 79/ nuclear matrix, 74 nuclear pores, 74/ 79, 79/ nucleic acids, 60, 60/ nucleoid, 75, 75/ 90 nucleolus, 74/ 79, 79/ 161 nucleoplasm, 79 nucleotides, 60, 197-198, 197/ 198/ See also adenine; cytosine; guanine; thymine nucleus (atom), 32, 32/ nucleus (cell), 74, 74/ 79, 79/ nudibranchs, 708, 708/ nurse bees, 752 nutrients, 979-984. See also mineral nutrients nyctinastic movements, 639, 639/ nymphs, 748, 748/

obesity, 58, 1038 obligate aerobes, 470 obligate anaerobes, 470 observation, 13-14, 14/ oceanic zone, 423/ 424-425, 425/ oceans, 423-425, 423/ 424/ 425/ octopuses, 704/ 710-711 ocular lenses, 21,21/ oil glands, 925, 925/ olfactory receptors, 808, 808/

1019, 1019/ oligotrophic lakes, 427 Olmsted, Frederick Law, 445 omnivores, 367 oncogenes, 225-226, 225/ 491 oocysts, 520 oogenesis, 164, 164/ Oparin, Alexander I., 284-285

operant conditioning, 889, 889/ operators, 218, 218/ operculum, 788, 788/ operons, 218-219, 218/ 219/ ophiuroids, 763, 763/ opossums, 776/ 860/ 867 opportunistic infections, 971 opposable thumbs, 876 optic tectum, 792, 792/ optimality hypothesis, 893 oral groove, 507/ 508 orbitals, 32, 33 orchids, 555, 555/ 572, 588/ orders, 339, 339/ organelles, 7, 75, 505 organic compounds, 51. See also biochemistry organ of Corti, 1017-1018, 1017/ 1018/ organogenesis, 664 organ systems, 7, 76, 76/

909-910, 909/ origin (muscle attachment), 921, 921/

origin of life, 278-295. See also evolution earliest eukaryotes, 290, 290/ first cells, 288-289, 289/ first organic compounds,

284-285, 285/ formation of Earth, 282-284, 283/

from molecules to cell-like structures, 286, 286/ self-replicating RNA systems, 288

ornithologists, 849 osculum, 673, 674/ osmosis, 98-100, 99/ 99/ 100/

996, 996/ ossicles, 762 ossification, 914 osteoarthritis, 916 osteocytes, 913-914, 913/ ostia, 673, 674/ oval window, 1017, 1017/ ovarian cycle, 1054-1055, 1054/ ovaries, 613, 613/ 1052, 1052/

1053/ oviduct, 848 oviparity, 829, 841, 863 ovipositors, 745/ 748, 753 ovoviviparity, 829 ovulation, 1054, 1054/ ovules, 612, 614-615, 614/ 617/ ovum, 1053-1057, 1053/ 1054/

1056/ 1057/ owls, 840/ 852 oxaloacetic acid, 138, 138/ oxidation-reduction reactions, 37 oxygen, 289, 948-949, 948/ 1077/ oxygen debt, 922 oxytocin, 1035, 1035/ ozone, 289

ozone layer, 436, 440, 440/

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