Muscle Structure

A skeletal muscle fiber is a single, multinucleated muscle cell. A skeletal muscle may be made up of hundreds or even thousands of muscle fibers, depending on the muscle's size. Although muscle fibers make up most of the muscle tissue, a large amount of connective tissue, blood vessels and nerves are also present. Like all body cells, muscle cells are soft and easy to injure. Connective tissue covers and supports each muscle fiber and reinforces the muscle as a whole.

The health of a muscle depends on a sufficient nerve and blood supply. Each skeletal muscle fiber has a nerve ending that controls its activity. Active muscles use a lot of energy and therefore require a continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients, which are supplied by arteries. Muscles produce large amounts of metabolic waste that must be removed through veins.

A skeletal muscle fiber, such as the one shown in Figure 45-11, contains bundles of threadlike structures called myofibrils (MIE-oh-FIE-bruhlz). Each myofibril is made up of two types of protein filaments—thick ones and thin ones. Thick filaments are made of the protein myosin (MlE-uh-suhn), and thin filaments are made of the protein actin. Myosin and actin filaments are arranged to form an overlapping pattern, which gives striated muscle tissue its striped appearance. Thin actin filaments are anchored at their endpoints to a structure called the Z line. The region from one Z line to the next is called a sarcomere (SAHR-kuh-MlR).

Skeletal muscles consist of densely packed groups of elongated cells, called fascicles, that are held together by connective tissue. Muscle fibers consist of protein filaments called myofibrils. Two types of filaments are found in muscle fibers—actin and myosin. The complementary structures of actin and myosin interact to contract and relax muscles.

Sarcomere figure 45-12

In a relaxed muscle, the actin and myosin filaments overlap. During a muscle contraction, the filaments slide past each other and the zone of overlap increases. As a result, the length of the sarcomere shortens.


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