L

labia, 746, 746/ 1053, 1053/ labor, 1060

laboratory safety, 24, 24/

1066-1069 labrum, 746, 746/ lac operon, 218-219, 218/ 219/

232-233 lacteals, 990/ 991 lactic acid, 922 lactic acid fermentation, 134, 134f lactose metabolism, 218-219,

218/ 219/ lagomorphs, 870, 870/ lake ecosystems, 427 Lamarck, Jean Baptiste, 298 laminarin, 512 lampreys, 779, 780/ 784, 784/ lancelets, 769-770, 769/ Landsteiner, Karl, 943, 945 large intestine, 991, 991/ larvae, 659, 659/ in amphibians, 808-809 in cnidarians, 680, 680/ in crustaceans, 726, 726/ in echinoderms, 761, 761/ in insects, 748-749,748/ 749/ in jawless fishes, 784 in mollusks, 705, 705/ in sponges, 675, 675/ larynx, 947, 947/ lateral buds, 593, 593/

lateral line, 783, 809 lateral meristems, 586, 586f lateral transfers, 348 latitude, species richness and,

405-406, 406/ law of independent assortment,

177-178, 178/ law of segregation, 177 layering, 624 leaf-footed bug, 649/ 740/ leaflets, 600, 600/ Leakey, Mary, 878 learning, 889-891, 889/ 890/ 891.

See also animal behavior leaves, 542/ 599-602, 599/ 600/

601/ 602/ 642 leeches, 712, 712/ 716, 716/ Leeuwenhoek, Anton vein, 70,

70/ 475 legumes, 547 Leigh's syndrome, 141 length polymorphisms, 255 lenses, 1018, 1019/ lethal mutations, 239 leucism, 171/ leukemia, 228

leukocytes. See white blood cells lichens, 511, 516, 533, 533/ 1082, 1082/

life. See also origin of life cellular basis, 70/ 71 characteristics, 5/-6/ 6-9, 11-12, 11/ diversity and unity, 10-11, 10/ domains and kingdoms, 10/ 11, 347-348, 347/ 348/ life expectancy, 383 ligaments, 915 light, 115, 115/ 124, 124/ light microscopes, 21-22, 21/ 69,

69/ 280, 1072-1073, 1072/ light reactions, 114, 116-118,

116/ 117/ 118/ 123, 123/ limbic system, 1012, 1012/ 1019, 1022

limiting factors, 386-388, 387/

396-397 linked genes, 238 Linnaeus, Carolus, 338, 340 linoleic acid, 59, 59/ 981/ lions, 861/ 888, 888/ 897 lipid bilayer, 59, 59/ 77, 77/ lipids, 59-60, 981, 981/ buoyancy from, 786 identifying in foods, 65 phospholipids, 59, 59/ 77, 77/ steroids, 60, 1031-1032, 1033/ Lister, Joseph, 475 liver, 789, 790/ 807, 807/ 938,

988, 988/ liverworts, 564/ 568, 568/ 1082 lizards anole, 308-309, 308/ 309/

838-839 characteristics, 832, 832/ color adaptation, 838-839 evolution of, 822/ thermoregulation, 828, 828/ lobe-finned fishes, 780, 780/ 787,

787/ 799 lobsters, 722/ 726

locomotion. See movement logistic growth, 387, 387/ loop of Henle, 994/ 995-997,

995/ 996/ Lorenz, Konrad, 891, 891/ "Lucy," 877, 877/ lunar cycles, 898 lung cancer, 228, 228/ 1024 lungfishes, 787, 787/ lungs, 660 amphibians, 805/ 806 circulation through, 937-938, 938/

as excretory organs, 998, 998/ in fishes, 787

gas exchange and transport,

948-949, 948/ in humans, 932/ 946-950, 947/ mammals, 865, 865/ path of air in, 946-947, 947/ in reptiles, 826 volume measurements, 954-955 luteal phase, 1054/ 1055 luteinizing hormone, 1035, 1035/ 1037, 1050, 1054-1055, 1054/ 1059 Lyell, Charles, 298 Lyme disease, 360, 360/ 466,

472/ 474, 733, 958f lymph, 939

lymphatic system, 933, 939, 939/ lymph nodes, 939, 939/ 962, 962/ lymphocytes, 150/ 939, 961-963,

962/ 969, 969f lymphomas, 228 lysis, 486

lysogenic cycle, 487, 487/ lysosomes, 74/ 82, 83/ lysozyme, 486, 958 lytic cycle, 486, 487/

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