karyotype a micrograph of the array of chromosomes visible in a cell during metaphase; a graphical display that shows an individual's chromosomes arranged in homologous pairs and in order of diminishing size (153)

keratin a hard protein that forms hair, bird feathers, nails, and horns (824, 924) keystone species a species that is critical to the functioning of the ecosystem in which it lives because it affects the survival and abundance of many other species in its community (443) kidney one of the organs that filter water and wastes from the blood, excrete products as urine, and regulate the concentration of certain substances in the blood (661) kilocalorie a unit of energy equal to 1,000

calories (135) kin selection a mechanism for increasing the frequency of one's genes in a population by helping increase the reproductive success of relatives (754, 879) kingdom in a traditional taxonomic system, the highest taxonomic category, which contains a group of similar phyla (11,339)

Koch's postulates a four-stage procedure that Robert Koch formulated for identifying a specific pathogen as the cause of a specific disease (957) Krebs cycle a series of biochemical reactions that convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water; it is the major pathway of oxidation in animal, bacterial, and plant cells, and it releases energy (138)

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