structures that can form in certain solutions.

4. Word Roots and Origins The word biogenesis is derived from the Greek word gignesthai, which means "origin." The prefix bio means "to be born." Using this information, explain how the meaning of biogenesis relates to this chapter.

Understanding Key Concepts

5. Predict what would have happened if Redi had used jars covered with netting that had very large openings in his experiment.

6. Evaluate Spallanzani's experiment, and explain why his results did not conclusively disprove the theory of spontaneous generation.

7. Describe Pasteur's experiment, and explain how it disproved spontaneous generation.

8. Relate the role of gravity to the early formation of Earth.

9. Calculate the age of a sample containing thorium-230 (whose half-life is 75,000 years) after three-fourths of the sample has decayed.

10. Identify the natural phenomenon that the electric spark in the Miller-Urey experiment was intended to model.

11. Compare the hypothesis tested in the Miller-Urey experiment with subsequent hypotheses about the conditions under which life may have first formed on Earth.

12. Compare microspheres and coacervates with modern, living cells.

13. Explain why many scientists who investigate the origin of life have focused on RNA chemistry.

14. Describe a hypothesis about the role of RNA in the original development of cells on early Earth.

15. Identify which modern organisms are thought to be most like the first forms of life on Earth.

16. Infer which environmental factors would probably favor the evolution of autotrophs.

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