1. For each pair of terms, explain the relationship between the terms.

a. seed and spore b. vascular plant and nonvascular plant c. phloem and xylem

2. Choose the term that does not belong in the following group, and explain why it does not belong: cuticle, spore, seed, and strobilus.

3. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.

a. gymnosperm and angiosperm b. gametophyte and sporophyte c. monocot and dicot

4. Use the following terms in the same sentence: cotyledon, germinate, and seedling.

5. Word Roots and Origins The word deciduous is derived from the Latin de, which means "down," and cadere, which means "to fall." Using this information, explain why the term deciduous is a good name for the plants that this term describes.

Understanding Key Concepts

6. Summarize how plants are adapted to living successfully on land.

7. Name two basic differences between nonvascular plants and vascular plants.

8. Describe how alternation of generations in nonvas-cular plants differs from that in vascular plants.

9. Explain why bryophytes are the most primitive type of plant.

10. Describe why plants in the phylum Bryophyta are sometimes called pioneer plants.

11. Differentiate between leafy liverworts and thal-loid liverworts.

12. State the characteristic that hornworts do not share with other bryophytes.

13. Explain how specialized conducting tissues give vascular plants an adaptive advantage over non-vascular plants.

14. Relate how ferns and fern allies are able to reproduce without seeds.

15. Differentiate between a cone and a fruit.

16. Explain how the diversity of angiosperms has helped them be more successful than gymnosperms.

17. State the primary basis used for classifying angiosperms.


CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following terms to create a concept map that describes the possible evolutionary relationships of plants: angiosperm, cone, flower, dicot, gymnosperm, monocot, ovary, and seed plant.

Critical Thinking

19. Analyzing Information Fossil trees are easier to find than fossils of small plants. Give two possible explanations.

20. Interpreting Graphics Look at the plants in the photo below. Do you think the cuticles of these plants are thicker on the upper surface of the leaf or on the lower surface? Explain.

21. Organizing Information Copy the chart below into your notebook. Indicate with a check mark (✓) which groups of plants have vascular tissue. Also, indicate which groups of plants have a dominant sporophyte as part of their life cycle.

Plant Evolution


Has vascular tissue

Has dominant sporophyte






y1 1

<¿9 Standardized Test Preparation

DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the answer choice that best answers the question.

1. Which of the following plants are bryophytes?

A. ferns and cycads

B. conifers and ginkgoes

C. hornworts and liverworts

D. horsetails and club mosses

2. In which way do mosses help start new biological communities?

F. forming new soil

G. producing spores

H. detecting air pollution J. slowing decomposition

3. True roots, stems, and leaves are characteristics of which types of plants?

A. all plants

B. only seed plants

C. only angiosperms

D. all vascular plants

4. Which of the following is a vascular seed plant?

F. ferns

G. cycads

H. horsetails

J. club mosses

INTERPRETING GRAPHICS: The diagram below shows a plant life cycle. Use the diagram to answer the question that follows.



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