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measurement, 28-29, 1071, 1071/

moderation by water, 41

photosynthesis and, 124, 124/ temperature receptors, 1020 tendons, 921, 921/ tendrils, 599, 599/ tentacles, 676-677, 676/ teredos, 710

terminal buds, 593-594, 593/ termination signals, 206, 206/ TerPogossian, Michael M., 923 territory, 894 testcrosses, 183, 183/ testes, 1049, 1049/ testosterone, 1037, 1050 tests, in protists, 507 tetanus, 470, 472/ tetracycline, 465, 473 tetrad, 161

tetrahydrocannibinol. See THC thalamus, 1012, 1012/ thalloid form, 568, 568/ thallus, 510

THC (tetrahydrocannibinol),

1023/ thecodonts, 819 theories, scientific, 17, 297 therapsids, 862, 862/ thermal pollution, 456-457 thermoacidophiles, 462, 462/, 1080, 1080/ thermophiles, 470, 470/ thermoreceptors, 1020 thermoregulation, 828, 828/. See also body temperature thigmonastic movements,

638-639, 638/ thigmotropism, 637 thoracic cavity, 910, 910/ 946, 949/

thorax, 728, 728/ 745, 745/ thorium-230, 284/ thylakoid membrane, 116-118,

116/ 117/ 118/ 467 thylakoids, 89, 89/, 114, 114/ 467 thymine, 197/ 198, 198/ 203, 203/ thymine dimers, 203, 203/ thymosin, 1040 thymus, 961, 961/ thymus gland, 1040 thyroid gland, 1036, 1036/ thyroid hormones, 811, 1032, 1035-1036, 1035/, 1041, 1041/

thyroid-stimulating hormone

thyrotropin-releasing hormone

thyroxine, 811, 811/ 1036,

1046-1047 ticks, 733, 733/ tigers, 170/ 864/ timelines. See milestones tissue, 7, 76, 76/ 651, 907-908, 908/ tissue culture, 624, 624/ tissue systems, 584-585, 584/,

585/, 907-908, 908/ toads, 801, 801/ tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), 483-484, 483/, 484/, 498-499, 499/ tobacco use, 226, 226/ 1024, 1024/

tolerance, addiction and, 1021 tolerance curves, 363 tongue, 1019 tonsils, 961/ 962 torsion, 707

toucans, 853, 853/ toxins bacterial, 472

from cnidarians, 677-678, 680 from insects, 750 in red tide, 513, 517 from scorpions, 733, 733/ from snakes, 833 from spiders, 732-733, 732/ toxoplasmosis, 509, 971 T phages, 486, 486/ tracheae, 731/ 732, 746, 747/ 947, 947/

tracheid, 585, 585/ traits, 173

dominant vs. recessive,

177-178, 237 from linked genes, 238 sex-influenced, 245 sex-linked, 237, 237/ 244, 244/ single-allele, 245 variations within populations, 317-318,317/ transcription, 204, 204/, 206, 206/, 220, 222, 222/ transduction, 471 transfer RNA (tRNA), 205, 205/ 208-209, 208/, 209/, 287/ transformation, 194, 471 transfusions, 945, 945/ transitional species, 304, 304/ translation, 204, 204/, 208-210,

208/, 209/ translocation, 239, 596, 596/ transmission electron microscopes (TEMs), 22 transpiration, 371-372, 371/ 597 transport. See cell transport transport proteins, 78/. See also carrier proteins transposons, 179, 262 tree frogs, 3/, 562/, 801/ "tree of life." See phylogenetic diagrams trees, 419-420, 420/, 573-574,

574/ 594-595, 595/ trematodes, 691-693, 692/ TRH. See thyrotropin-releasing hormone

Triassic period, 820, 820/;

862-863, 1085t trichinosis, 697, 697/ trichomoniasis, 520 tricuspid valve, 933/; 934 triglycerides, 59, 981 triiodothyronine, 1036 trilobites, 302/; 303, 303/; 724 trimester, 1057-1060 triple bonds, 52, 52/ Triple X syndrome, 253t trisomy, 253, 253t tRNA. See transfer RNA trochophores, 705, 705/; 709 trophic levels, 368-369, 368/; 369/ tropical dry forests, 419 tropical rain forests, 11, 11/;

tropisms, 636-638, 636/; 637t; 638/ true-breeding, 175, 175/ truffles, 529, 536/ trypanosomes, 508-509, 508/ TSH. See thyroid-stimulating hormone tuataras, 822/; 834, 834/ tube cells, 615-616, 615/; 617/ tube feet, 762-763, 765/; 766-767 tuberculosis (TB), 470, 473-474 tubers, 547, 592/; 623t tubular leaves, 599/ tubulin, 84, 84t tumors, 202, 225, 225/ tumor-suppressor genes, 225, 225/

tundra, 418, 418/; 418t tunicates, 770, 770/ turgor pressure, 100, 100/ Turner's syndrome, 253t turtles, 822/; 826/; 830-831, 830/ two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 264, 264/ tympanic membrane, 809, 1017,

1017/ tympanum, 747 type 1 diabetes, 58, 969t; 1039 type 2 diabetes, 58, 1039

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