Identify the reason populations of tuataras have decreased in the last 1,000 years.

CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following terms to create a concept map that relates various adaptations of reptiles to life on land: reptiles, water loss, amniotic eggs, keratin, scales, watertight, and skin.

Critical Thinking

23. Analyzing Information If birds did not evolve from the pterosaurs, what can you conclude about the evolution of the ability to fly?

24. Analyzing Concepts Why is it advantageous for a snake to kill its prey, either through constriction or venom, before trying to eat the prey?

25. Recognizing Relationships The skin of a basking lizard is usually dark. As the lizard warms, the skin lightens. Suggest a functional explanation for this change. (Hint: Consider how this change might affect the lizard's absorption of heat.)

26. Analyzing Data Fossil evidence collected in Alaska suggests that some dinosaurs were year-round residents of areas subject to freezing temperatures and long periods of darkness. Does this evidence of arctic dinosaurs support or contradict the hypothesis that the extinction of dinosaurs was due to the intense cold produced by a cloud of debris in the atmosphere? Explain your answer.

27. Relating Concepts Some viviparous snakes and lizards live in cold climates. Why might viviparity be advantageous in such environments?

28. Interpreting Graphics The following diagram shows five parts of the amniotic egg, indicated by the letters A, B, C, D, and E. Name and identify the function of each part.

Standardized Test Preparation

DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the answer choice that best answers the question.

1. Which is an adaptation that made reptiles the dominant species in the Mesozoic era?

A. They were endotherms.

B. They could live in Antarctica.

C. They were all large predators.

D. They were well adapted to dry areas.

2. What are the two basic parts of a turtle's shell?

F. septum and amnion

G. chorion and allantois

H. keratin and columella J. carapace and plastron

3. What is the purpose of a lizard's ability to lose its tail and grow a new one?

A. to capture prey

B. to hide from predators

C. to escape from predators

D. to reduce its need for food

4. Long legless bodies may have arisen as an adaptation that helped snakes do what?

F. catch prey

G. swallow large animals

H. absorb oxygen through their skin

J. burrow and move through thick vegetation

INTERPRETING GRAPHICS: The graph below shows changes in air temperature and changes in the body temperature of a lizard. Use the graph below to answer the question that follows.

Changes in Lizard Body Temperature

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