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figure 19-8

The graph displays the results of an experiment that tested how the growth of a group of plants was affected under three conditions of crowding. Under the condition of least crowding (fewer plants per square meter), the plants were observed to grow larger on average.

As a population grows, competition among individuals for the shrinking supply of resources intensifies, and each individual, on average, obtains a smaller share. Thus, each individual's ability to fight off disease, grow, and reproduce decreases. As a result, the population's birth rate declines and death rate increases. Figure 19-8 shows how increasing population size affected the growth of a plant species in a limited area.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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