^ ^ Products

Reaction progress

Reaction progress

Oxidation Reduction Reactions

You know that there is a constant transfer of energy into and throughout living things. Many of the chemical reactions that help transfer energy in living things involve the transfer of electrons. These reactions in which electrons are transferred between atoms are known as oxidation reduction reactions, or redox reactions. In an oxidation (AHKS-i-DAY-shuhn) reaction, a reactant loses one or more electrons, thus becoming more positive in charge. For example, remember that a sodium atom loses an electron to achieve stability when it forms an ionic bond, as shown in Figure 2-4. Thus, the sodium atom undergoes oxidation to form a Na+ ion. In a reduction reaction, a reactant gains one or more electrons, thus becoming more negative in charge. When a chlorine atom gains an electron to form a Cr ion, the atom undergoes reduction. Redox reactions always occur together. An oxidation reaction occurs, and the electron given up by one substance is then accepted by another substance in a reduction reaction.

The blue curve shows the activation energy that must be supplied before this reaction can begin. The activation energy can be reduced, as shown by the red curve, by adding a catalyst.

Quick Lab

Modeling Ionic Bonds

Materials toothpicks, small and large marshmallows, and raisins

Procedure ^^

Use large marshmallows to represent chlorine, small marshmallows to represent sodium, raisins to represent electrons, and toothpicks to represent bonds or orbital place holders. Make models of Na, CI, Na+ CI~, and NaCl (sodium chloride). Analysis Use your models to identify each of the following: a sodium atom, a sodium ion, a chlorine atom, a chloride ion, an ionic bond, and a particle of sodium chloride.

Sirens Sleep Solution

Sirens Sleep Solution

Discover How To Sleep In Peace And Harmony In A World Full Of Uncertainty And Dramatically Improve Your Quality Of Life Today! Finally You Can Fully Equip Yourself With These “Must Have” Tools For Achieving Peace And Calmness And Live A Life Of Comfort That You Deserve!

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment