Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

• Flowers are reproductive structures. Most flowers consist of four parts—protective sepals, colorful petals, pollen-producing stamens, and egg-containing carpels.

• An immature ovule contains a megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis and produces four megaspores. One of the megaspores divides by mitosis to form an embryo sac.

• Pollen grains form in stamens. Microspore mother cells in pollen sacs undergo meiosis and produce microspores, each of which develops into a pollen grain.

• Many flowering plants have flowers adapted for animal pollination or for wind pollination.

• In double fertilization, one sperm combines with the egg to form a zygote. A second sperm combines with two polar nuclei to form the endosperm.

Vocabulary receptacle (p. 613) sepal (p. 613) petal (p. 613) stamen (p. 613) anther (p. 613)

filament (p. 613) carpel (p. 613) pistil (p. 613) ovary (p. 613)

style (p. 613) stigma (p. 613) embryo sac (p. 614) polar nuclei (p. 615)

tube cell (p. 615) generative cell (p. 615) nectar (p. 616) double fertilization (p. 617)

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