Info

Which blood types, in terms of the A-B-O and Rh antigens, can be donated to somebody with type AB- blood?

8. Relating Concepts Explain why a pregnant woman should know her blood type and the blood type of her baby's father.

Timeline

1628 William Harvey describes the circulation of blood.

1667 Jean-Baptiste

Denis successfully transfuses blood from a lamb to a human.

1818 First human-to-human blood transfusion.

1901 Karl Landsteiner determined three of four blood types (A, B, and O).

1914 Blood is stored for the first time.

1937 Bernard Fantus formed the first blood bank.

1939 Charles Drew set up collection centers for blood to fill World War II needs.

1950 Carl Walter and " W.P. Murphy, Jr. introduced the plastic bag to collect blood.

1985 Blood is screened for HIV and other diseases.

Timeline

1628 William Harvey describes the circulation of blood.

1667 Jean-Baptiste

Denis successfully transfuses blood from a lamb to a human.

1818 First human-to-human blood transfusion.

1901 Karl Landsteiner determined three of four blood types (A, B, and O).

1914 Blood is stored for the first time.

1937 Bernard Fantus formed the first blood bank.

1939 Charles Drew set up collection centers for blood to fill World War II needs.

1950 Carl Walter and " W.P. Murphy, Jr. introduced the plastic bag to collect blood.

1985 Blood is screened for HIV and other diseases.

Blood Transfusions

Every three seconds someone needs a blood transfusion—blood, plasma, or saline is introduced into the body. Blood and blood products are used to treat accident and burn victims, cancer patients, and patients undergoing surgeries and medical treatments. The development of safe blood transfusion techniques was an important achievement in modern medicine.

In 1665, Richard Lower, an English physician, transferred blood between two dogs. Jean-Baptiste Denis, a French physician and astrologer, transfused blood from a lamb to a human in 1667. The first successful human-to-human blood transfusions were performed in 1818 by James Blundell, a British physician, but these were followed by many failures.

In 1901, Austrian-born American physiologist Karl Landsteiner determined the first three blood types—A, B, and O—and that incompatible types will clot. This discovery explained why the outcome of transfusions had been so unpredictable in the past. For his work, Landsteiner received the Nobel Prize in medicine or physiology in 1930.

During World War I, scientists began to study how to preserve and transport blood for wounded soldiers. They found that the addition of sodium citrate prevented clotting, making the storage of blood possible for the first time.

In 1937, Bernard Fantus, a physician, established the first nonprofit blood bank at Cook County Hospital in Chicago. The next year, Charles Drew, a medical doctor, found that blood plasma (the liquid component of blood) could substitute for whole blood in emergency situations.

Germany's attack on France in 1940 created a great need for blood. Based on Drew's findings, the United States began to provide liquid plasma and whole blood for France. Working with the National Research

Council and the American Red Cross, Drew set up blood collection centers.

Early in the 1980s, some transfused blood was found to carry the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Since 1985, careful screening for HIV, hepatitis, and other diseases has almost entirely removed the risk of receiving contaminated blood.

Today, many people bank their own blood for later use in surgery. Blood can also be collected during surgery and returned to the patient later. The AIDS epidemic has triggered a race to create artificial blood. Several companies have begun testing blood substitutes from chemically treated animal blood and outdated human blood.

Review

1. What type of patients can benefit from blood transfusions?

2. Critical Thinking How might safe blood transfusion techniques affect you?

3. Critical Thinking Use the Web site below to research the latest progress on creating artificial blood. Write a short report to describe your findings.

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