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at its nodes; a new plant can grow from each node

sugar cane

Bulb

very short, underground monocot stem with thick, fleshy leaves adapted for storage; bulbs divide naturally to produce new plants

tulip, daffodil, onion, garlic, hyacinth

Tuber

underground, swollen, fleshy stem specialized for storage; the buds on a tuber can grow into new plants

potato, caladium, Jerusalem artichoke

figure 30-16

Tissue culture can be used to grow round-leaved sundews, Drosera rotundifolia. The jelly in the Petri dish is a sterile soil substitute that contains needed nutrients.

figure 30-16

Tissue culture can be used to grow round-leaved sundews, Drosera rotundifolia. The jelly in the Petri dish is a sterile soil substitute that contains needed nutrients.

Cuttings

In some plants, roots will form on a cut piece of a stem, or shoots will form on a piece of a root. Pieces of stems and roots that are cut from a plant and used to grow new plants are called cuttings. Plants such as African violets can be grown from leaf cuttings, which will form both roots and shoots. Cuttings are widely used to propagate houseplants, ornamental trees and shrubs, and some fruit crops.

Layering

In some species, such as raspberries, roots form on stems where they make contact with the soil. People often stake branch tips to the soil or cover the bases of stems with soil to propagate such plants. The process of causing roots to form on a stem is called layering. Air layering, wounding a stem and placing moist peat moss around the wound, is another common form of layering.

Grafting

Grafting is the joining of two or more plant parts to form a single plant. In grafting, a bud or small stem of one plant is attached to the roots or stems of a second plant. The vascular cambium of both parts must be aligned for a graft to be successful. Grafting enables the desirable characteristics of two cultivars to be combined. Grafting is used to propagate virtually all commercial fruit and nut trees and many ornamental trees and shrubs.

Tissue Culture

Figure 30-16 shows plants grown by tissue culture, the production of new plants from pieces of tissue placed on a sterile nutrient medium. Unlike most animal cells, plant cells contain functional copies of all the genes needed to produce a new plant. Thus, it is possible for a whole plant to regrow from a single cell. Millions of identical plants can be grown from a small amount of tissue. Tissue culture is used in the commercial production of orchids, houseplants, cut flowers, fruit plants, and ornamental trees, shrubs, and nonwoody plants.

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