CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following terms to create a concept map that shows development from blastula to coelom formation in a deuterostome: blastula, gastrula, archenteron, blastopore, anus, mouth, germ layers, ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm, and coelom.

Critical Thinking

20. Recognizing Relationships Considering that an endoskeleton can support more weight than an exoskeleton, would a large-bodied animal with an exoskeleton be more likely to live in the water or on land? Explain.

21. Recognizing Relationships On mammals and birds, the head is positioned higher with respect to the body than it is on amphibians and reptiles. Why might it be helpful to have a head positioned over the body?

22. Interpreting Graphics Observe the animal pictured below, and answer the following questions.

a. Which kind of symmetry does the animal display?

b. Is this animal cephalized?

c. How many germ layers does this animal have?

d. How many openings does this animal's digestive system have?

e. Does this animal have neurons?

0 Standardized Test Preparation

DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the answer choice that best answers the question.

1. What is the name for the process that leads to cell specialization in multicellular organisms?

A. evolution

B. fertilization

C. differentiation

D. asexual reproduction

2. What process takes place as a zygote begins to divide after fertilization?

F. meiosis

G. cleavage

H. gastrulation

J. organogenesis

3. Which animals do not have true tissues?

A. sponges

B. chordates

C. cnidarians

D. ctenophores

4. What are the basic tissue types in an embryo called?

F. coeloms

G. germ layers

H. notochords

J. pharyngeal pouches

INTERPRETING GRAPHICS: The diagrams below illustrate a certain type of body-cavity development. Study the diagrams to answer the questions that follow.

5. The diagrams represent the development of which of the following animals?

A. fish

B. sponge

C. octopus

D. cnidarian

6. With which of the following is the process illustrated above associated?

F. acoelomates

G. deuterostomes

H. spiral cleavage

J. indeterminate cleavage

DIRECTIONS: Complete the following analogy.

A. lungs

B. nerves

C. vertebrae

D. intestines

INTERPRETING GRAPHICS: The diagrams below illustrate different organisms. Study the images to answer the question that follows.







8. Which of the organisms has radial symmetry?

F. beetle

G. sponge

H. jellyfish

J. both the beetle and the sponge SHORT RESPONSE

Ctenophores and cnidarians are considered closely related to one another. Chordates and echinoderms are also considered closely related to one another.

Explain how it was determined that cnidarians are less closely related to chordates and echinoderms than they are to ctenophores.

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