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• Symmetry, segmentation, and type of skeleton are related to the lifestyle of an animal.

• Invertebrates include morphologically diverse phyla, the members of which are mostly radially or bilaterally symmetrical.

• In an open circulatory system, circulatory fluid is pumped by the heart through vessels and into the body cavity and is then returned to the vessels.

• In a closed circulatory system, blood is pumped by a heart and circulates throughout the body in tubelike vessels that form a closed loop.

• Vertebrates have highly organized brains in which specific functions occur in specific centers of the brain. The larger the decision-making portion of the brain is, the more complex and flexible the behavior of the animal.

• Most animals reproduce sexually. Fertilization and

Vocabulary segmentation (p. 657) exoskeleton (p. 658) gill (p. 658)

open circulatory system (p. 658) closed circulatory system (p. 658)

hermaphrodite (p. 659) larva (p. 659) endoskeleton (p. 660) vertebra (p. 660)

integument (p. 660) lung (p. 660) kidney (p. 661)

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