Describe the conditions under which the ability to bind oxygen gas is an advantage to a cell.

Explain how the formation of the ozone layer permitted organisms to colonize land.

Explain the theory of endosymbiosis.

CJ CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following □ □ □ terms to create a concept map illustrating the theory of endosymbiosis: anaerobic prokaryotes, eukaryotes, cyanobacteria, aerobic prokaryotes, endosymbiosis, mitochondria, and chloroplasts.

Critical Thinking

22. Comparing Concepts How does the principle of biogenesis pose a scientific question regarding the origin of life on Earth?

23. Evaluating Conclusions People once believed fish could form from the mud in a pond that sometimes dried up. How could you demonstrate that this conclusion is false?

24. Evaluating Methods Why did the Miller-Urey experiment not include oxygen gas, O2, in the mixture of gases simulating Earth's first atmosphere?

25. Interpreting Graphics The apparatus shown below is an example of the Miller-Urey experiment modeling conditions on early Earth. Explain the function of each part of the apparatus.

Ms/ Standardized Test Preparation

DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter that best answers the question.

1. In the 17th and 18th centuries, which of the following was the hypothesis of spontaneous generation used to explain?

A. how new life started

B. how eukaryotes evolved

C. how simple organic compounds formed

D. how coacervates and microspheres formed

2. Coacervates are similar to cells but lack which of the following?

F. genetic information

G. interior fluid

H. complex organic molecules

J. the chemical properties of cells

3. The planets of our solar system gained mass for a half-billion years after their formation as a result of which of the following?

A. flames from the sun

B. collisions with space debris

C. tidal forces generated by moons

D. the synthesis of organic molecules

INTERPRETING GRAPHICS: The graph below shows the decay of a radioactive isotope over time. Use the graph to answer the question that follows.

Amount Remaining of Radioactive Sample

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