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• Photoperiodism is a plant's response to changes in the length of days and nights.

• Plants fit in one of three photoperiodic classes for flowering: day-neutral, short-day, and long-day plants. Short-day and long-day plants have a specific requirement for darkness, called the critical night length.

• Vernalization is the promotion of flowering by cold temperatures. Farmers often plant wheat seeds in the fall so that the seedlings can be exposed to winter temperatures and will flower before summer droughts begin.

• Changing fall colors in tree leaves are due to chlorophyll degradation, which reveals other pigments already present.

Vocabulary photoperiodism (p. 640) critical night length (p. 640) short-day plant (p. 640)

long-day plant (p. 640) day-neutral plant (p. 640) phytochrome (p. 641)

vernalization (p. 642) biennial (p. 642) bolting (p. 642)

fall color (p. 642)

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