Info

Disease

Bacterium

Areas affected by illness

Mode of transmission

Anthrax

Bacillus anthracis

lungs, skin, or intestines

airborne spores; may be picked up from environmental surfaces

Botulism

Clostridium botulinum

nerves

improperly preserved foods

Cholera

Vibrio cholerae

intestine

feces-contaminated water

Dental caries (tooth decay)

Streptococcus mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius

teeth and gums

dense collections of bacteria normally found in the mouth

Gonorrhea

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

urethra, fallopian tubes, and epididymis

person-to-person transmission by sexual contact

Lyme disease

Borrelia burgdorferi

skin, joints, and heart

tick bite

Salmonella food poisoning

species of the genus Salmonella, such as S. typhimurium

intestine

feces-contaminated water and food

Tetanus

Clostridium tetani

nerve cells at synapses

soil-contaminated skin wounds

Staph infection

Staphylococcus aureus

skin, soft tissue, lungs, and blood

direct contact of skin wounds with S. aureus

Normal staphylococcal cells

Q If antibiotic is absent, the few mutant cells grow more slowly than normal cells do, and they die.

Genes in a few cells mutate.

Normal staphylococcal cells

Q If antibiotic is absent, the few mutant cells grow more slowly than normal cells do, and they die.

Genes in a few cells mutate.

© Resistant cells eventually take over population.

Q If antibiotic is present, the mutant cells that are resistant to the antibiotic survive and reproduce.

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