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1. Explain the relationship between length polymorphisms and variable number tandem repeats (VNTR).

2. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.

a. gel electrophoresis and DNA fingerprint b. restriction enzyme and recombinant DNA

c. vector and plasmid

3. Use the following terms in the same sentence: cloning by nuclear transfer and telomeres.

4. Word Roots and Origins The word herbicide derives from the Latin herba, meaning "plant" and cida, meaning "to kill." Using this information, explain how the term herbicide relates to an increase in food crop yields.

Understanding Key Concepts

5. Describe how variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) are used to identify DNA.

6. Name the four major steps used in DNA identification.

7. Identify the purpose for using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

8. Explain how restriction enzymes are used.

9. Describe how a DNA fingerprint is prepared.

10. Relate cloning vectors to recombinant DNA.

11. Name two applications of DNA identification.

12. State the two major goals of the Human Genome Project.

13. Discuss three insights gained from the Human Genome Project.

14. Describe the importance of sequencing the genomes of model species.

15. State how information from the Human Genome Project will be applied to future projects.

16. Discuss the role of bioinformatics in the Human Genome Project.

17. Explain how gene therapy has been used to treat cystic fibrosis.

18. Describe how biologists used cloning by nuclear transfer to clone animals.

19. List two ways that genetic engineering may increase crop yields.

20. Describe the steps scientists are taking to ensure that genetic engineering techniques are carefully used in society.

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CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following terms to create a concept map about genetic engineering: DNA of interest, vectors, recombinant DNA, plasmids, restriction enzymes, and sticky ends.

Critical Thinking

22. Applying Information In the past, breeders developed new plant and animal varieties by selecting organisms with desirable traits and breeding them. Name an advantage and a disadvantage of genetic engineering techniques over this method.

23. Unit 6—Gene Expression

^¡«m.^ The United States has regulations BHHlOCI " regarding the release of genetically

Vo»" engineered organisms into the environment. Write a report about reasons why people have concerns regarding the release of such organisms.

24. Interpreting Graphics The photograph below shows eight lanes (columns) in a gel. Several of these lanes contain DNA fingerprints of samples taken from a crime scene, a victim, and four suspects. State which suspect's DNA fingerprint matches the blood found at the crime scene. Is it likely that the blood found at the crime scene belongs to the suspect? Explain.

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