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1. For each pairs of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.

a. savanna and desert b. tundra and taiga c. photic zone and aphotic zone d. estuary and freshwater wetland

2. For each pair of terms, explain the relationship between the terms.

a. tropical rain forest and canopy b. tundra and permafrost c. neritic zone and plankton

3. Word Roots and Origins The word epiphtye is derived from the Greek phytos, which means "plant," and the prefix epi-, which means "on top of." Using this information, explain why the term epiphtye is a good name for the type of organism than the term describes.

Understanding Key Concepts

4. Explain why tundra soil is poor in nutrients.

5. Describe a tropical rain forest.

6. Explain how the destruction of tropical rain forests can contribute to an increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.

7. Compare the dominant vegetation of temperate deciduous forests with that of taiga.

8. Identify the adaptive function of the needle-like leaves on a coniferous tree.

9. Contrast a temperate grassland with a savanna.

10. Describe the typical plants and soil of a desert.

11. List the approximate latitudes where the following biomes are mostly located: tropical rain forests, tundra, and chaparral.

12. Identify which terrestrial biomes are the most productive.

13. Identify the major zones in the oceans.

14. Identify which ocean zones are most productive.

15. Explain why the oxygen content of eutrophic lakes decreases over time.

16. Explain why estuaries are more productive than most other biomes.

17. Explain how gradient affects rivers and streams.

18. Write a report summarizing how BMLOGV " artificial aquatic ecosystems are used to eliminate pollutants from wastewater. Find out which kinds of modern urban facilities use artificial ecosystems.

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